Capacity development

Updates

The UN High-Level Political Forum took place in New York earlier this month. DiploFoundation and the Geneva Internet Platform covered all sessions related to data and digital policy. Certain sessions also addressed the issue of capacity building, noting that it requires financial resources and knowledge sharing. While the additional amount of money needed to fund SDG data - annually about USD$ 200 million - is relatively small compared to the sum needed for SDG implementation, there is an important funding gap. To close this gap, there is a need for political support and awareness, and a change of the perception about the utility of official statistics among policymakers. This also requires smoothening the relation between policymakers and data producers, with NSIs demonstrating the power of data; ‘unless data is made valuable, we won’t get the wallets to open up’. Finally, partnerships with civil society, academia, and the private sector will be key. These sectors could address gaps in data and methodologies, and share the burden of work.

The European Commission has announced a set of measures to 'put artificial intelligence (AI) at the service of European and boost Europe's competitiveness in this field'. The measures, detailed in a Communication, are built on three main pillars. First, the Commission plans to invest €1,5 billion by 2020 in AI research and innovation, as well as to stimulate more private investments in AI by mobilising more than €500 million in the framework of its European Fund for Strategic Investments. To stimulate the development of AI technologies, which are based on data, the Commission is proposing legislation to increase the availability of data for re-use and to facilitate the sharing of data. Second, the Commission will support stakeholders prepare for socio-economic changes brought about by AI, especially in the fields of education, training, and labour, through actions such as encouraging business-education partnership to attract and retain AI talent, setting up dedicated (re)training schemes, and supporting traineeships and other capacity development programmes in advanced digital skills. Third, the EU executive body will work on a set of ethical guidelines on AI development, to be presented by the end of 2018. It will also issue guidelines on how the Product Liability Directive applies in the context of new technologies to ensure 'legal clarity for consumers and producers'.

On 27-28 March, G7 Ministers of Employment and Innovation met in Montreal to discuss how the new economy is impacting industries and workers, and what measures governments can take to  support their citizens in the new world of work. Ministers agreed that more efforts are needed to promote gender equality and women empowerment, including in the field of science, technology, engineering, and maths. They also discussed the importance of public-private cooperation in ensuring that the workforce can adapt and transition to the new economy, as well as of investing in digital literacy and designing appropriate social protection systems. The ministers established an Employment Task Force to provide recommendations on these and other issues, and launched a Future of Work Forum (hosted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to support the work of the task force. The impact of new digital technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, and big data on society as a whole was also discussed, and ministers underlined the need for human-centric AI developments and for multistakeholder dialogue and cooperation on AI. They also decided to convene a multistakeholder conference on AI, to be held in Canada in the fall of 2018.

A report titled 'Internet of Things: Realising the potential of a trusted smart world', and published by the UK Royal Academy of Engineering and Petras, explores policy challenges related to advancements in the field of the Internet of Things (IoT) and outlines a series of issues to be considered 'if policy is to be effective and the potential economic value of IoT is harnessed'. Some of the report's recommendations for the UK government include: adopting a heterogeneous approach to governance and regulation of IoT, rather than a one-size-fits-all framework; facilitating the development and deployment of standards for IoT where needed; working with other governments and international institutions towards ‘umbrella agreements’ for IoT data integrity and security; expanding existing UK cybersecurity capacity-building initiatives to include IoT policy support for states without the research capacity to address these challenges; developing a strategy for IoT, as well as an infrastructure roadmap for IoT; expanding and adjusting existing educational initiatives, programmes and strategies, to ensure that people develop sector-specific IoT skills; enabling the development of security standards for IoT; and supporting the elaboration of an ethical framework for IoT to encourage ethical behaviours.​

The World Summit of Information Society (WSIS) meeting started in Geneva. Traditionally, heavy focus is laid on capacity development in digital policy. The C4 WSIS Action Line (Capacity building) was tagged in almost half of the sessions taking on Day 1 only. Consult all session reports at this page.

The Ministry of Education in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has announced the launch of a nation-wide programme titled 'Industrial Revolution X' (IR-X). The programme, which complements UAE's Artificial Intelligence Strategy and Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is aimed at 'equipping UAE nationals with the knowledge, skills and hands-on expertise required to keep apace with modern technologies and scientific advancements occurring globally'. Implemented in partnership with international and local organisations, IR-X is built around three tracks: entrepreneurship (to support start-ups), employment (to support individuals in finding jobs that match their expertise and skills), and research (to support research in areas pertaining to the fourth industrial revolution'.

Capacity development is often defined as the improvement of knowledge, skills and institutions to make effective use of resources and opportunities. Widespread on the agenda of international development agencies, capacity development programs range from societal to individual level and include a diversity of strategies, from fundraising to targeted training. Capacity development for Internet-related matters comprises both the strengthening of institutional capacities (in particular for technical deployment, policy-making and implementation) and the development of individual competences (skills and abilities pertaining to the information society, including computer literacy, privacy safeguards, etc.). The effectiveness and legitimacy of Internet governance depend on the capacity of nations, organisations, and individuals to participate fully in Internet governance policy processes. In the outcome documents of the World Summit on Information Society (2003/2005), capacity development is underscored as a priority for developing countries. Likewise, the outcome document of the high-level meeting of the GA on the overall review of the implementation of the outcomes of WSIS calls for further investments into capacity development.

 

Capacity development could be defined by reference to types of capacities and levels at which they are developed. Types of capacities include:

  • Hard capacities include technical and specialised knowledge and know how (e.g. engineering knowledge).

  • Soft capacities are often divided in two sub-groups:

    • Operational capacities: intercultural communication, leadership, organisational culture and values, problem-solving skills.

    • Adaptive capacities: ability to analyse and adapt, change readiness and management, confidence.

Hard capacities are often referred to as being technical and visible, while soft capacities are described as rational and invisible.

The need for capacity development has been an underlying feature in Internet governance since the WSIS 2003–2005 outcome documents, which underscored capacity development as a priority for developing countries. Likewise, the 2015 WSIS+10 outcome document calls for further investment in capacity development.

Given the novel nature of Internet governance, the main focus has been on individual training and policy immersion.

Many organisations, including the ITU, DiploFoundation, and the Geneva Internet Platform (GIP), APC, the Internet Society, and ICANN have dedicated capacity development programmes. Various regional summer schools on Internet governance also contribute to strengthening capacity, in particular for developing countries. Many of the available programmes focus on telecommunication infrastructure, technical standards, cybersecurity, spam, ICT regulation, freedom of expression, e-commerce, labour law, access, and overcoming the digital divide.

Hundreds of individuals have been trained in Internet governance and digital policy. The shift towards a more mature phase would require a stronger focus on organisational development, by ensuring sustained participation in policy processes. This includes developing the organisational capacities of governments, civil society, business associations, and academia in developing countries.  Organisational and system-level capacity development are becoming particularly relevant in dealing with issues such as cybersecurity.

Research on capacity development in general and experience from the Internet governance field lead towards the following highlights:

  • While the Internet is a global facility, Internet policy is often very local. It is shaped by local cultural and social specificities (e.g. cultural sensitivity for content, relevance of privacy protection). Thus, capacity development should follow local dynamics, taking into consideration local political, social, cultural, and other specific conditions in developing and implementing capacity development programmes and activities.

  • The urgency for capacity development could be addressed by providing just-in-time learning as a part of policy processes. Some elements of this approach are used by DiploFoundation and the GIP, in just-in-time training programmes for diplomats, as well as by ICANN, in its Fellowship Programme, and the Internet Society, in its IGF Ambassadors Programme.  

  • The growing need for capacity in the digital policy field has to be addressed at a more systemic level, by including Internet governance and related topics in the curriculum of academic post-graduate studies.

  • Genuine and sustainable empowerment can be achieved through holistic capacity development on individual, organisational, system, and network levels, as visualised in the capacity development butterfly.

Generally, the lack of sufficient resources and the limited sustainability of initiatives remain the main challenges for capacity development. Another challenge lies in the delicate line between neutral capacity development and advocacy.

Events

Actors

(GCSP)

As part of its Emerging Security Challenges Programme, the GCSP has a

...

As part of its Emerging Security Challenges Programme, the GCSP has a cybersecurity cluster which tackles cybersecurity issues through education and training activities, as well as policy analysis and events. The cluster also provides a platform for dialogue and exchanges on cyber challenges, among cyber experts from the public, private, and civil society sectors. The training and education activities cover areas such as cybersecurity strategy formulation, cyber diplomacy, and broader capacity building initiatives (e.g. workshops and student challenges). Policy papers produced by the GCSP examine issues such as computer network defence, future challenges in cyberspace.

(Graduate Institute)

Internet governance and digital policy are part of the educational, training, and research activities carried out by the Institute.

...

Internet governance and digital policy are part of the educational, training, and research activities carried out by the Institute. Its master programme in international affairs includes one course on Internet governance, aimed to introduce students to the economics of the Internet and its underlying governance. Researchers at the Institute often choose Internet-related topics for their studies, such as: multistakeholderism and Internet governance organisations; jurisdiction, international law, and the Internet; the digital sharing economy; and cybersecurity. Workshops, seminars, and other events organised by the Institute also cover Internet-related issues, ranging from the digital divide, through cloud computing, to cybersecurity.

 

(ICT4Peace)

In the area of online content policy, the ICT for Peace Foundation is engaged in activities concerning the use

...

In the area of online content policy, the ICT for Peace Foundation is engaged in activities concerning the use of the Internet for terrorist purposes. The Foundation is organising events and producing publications on this issue, with the main aim of raising awareness and promoting a multistakeholder dialogue on possible solutions for countering terrorist use of the Internet. Together with the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate, the organisation runs a global engagement project working with other stakeholders to develop community standards around the prevention of violent extremism online, consistent with UN principles, including in the area of human rights.

(IPU)

In line with its objective to build strong and democratic parliaments, the IPU assists parliaments in building

...

In line with its objective to build strong and democratic parliaments, the IPU assists parliaments in building their capacity to use information and communications technologies (ICT) effectively. In 2005, the IPU, together with UNDESA, established a Global Centre on ICT in Parliament, mainly aimed at promoting the use of ICTs in parliaments as a mean to increase transparency and effectiveness. The IPU has also been mandated by its member states to carry on capacity development programmes for parliamentary bodies tasked to oversee observance of the right to privacy and individual freedoms in the digital environment.

(UNCTAD)

UNCTAD’s activities in the field of capacity development cover various issues.

...

UNCTAD’s activities in the field of capacity development cover various issues. The entity helps build the capacity of policymakers and lawmakers at national level in understanding the underlying issues underpinning e-commerce (ranging from e-signatures, to privacy and data protection) and in developing enabling legislation and policies. It also works on building the capacity of developing countries to produce official statistics on the information economy, and to use those statistics to guide ICT policies. UNCTAD assists countries in developing enabling policies for science, technology, and innovation as key drivers of economic and social development.  The organisation also focuses on empowering women entrepreneurs through technology.

(UNIGE)

The University of Geneva provides courses focused on Internet and law.

...

The University of Geneva provides courses focused on Internet and law. It also organises an annual Internet L@w Summer School, aimed at providing participants with an opportunity to gain hands-on experience in the framework of an Internet law clinic, and discuss Internet law and policy issues such as cybersecurity, privacy, freedom of expression, and intellectual property. In 2016, UNIGE launched a Geneva Internet L@w Research Colloquium. Research carried out at UNIGE covers digital policy issues such as freedom of expression online, copyright, and the Internet of Things. The University also organises seminars and conferences focused on a broad range of digital issues.

G20
(G20 )

GSMA
(GSMA)

Freedom House
(Freedom House)

RedCLARA
(RedCLARA)

Childnet International
(Childnet International)

Hivos
(Hivos)

Access Now
(Access)

Instruments

Conventions

Resolutions & Declarations

Wuzhen World Internet Conference Declaration (2015)

Recommendations

Other Instruments

ITU: Reviewing Global Internet Governance Capacity Development and Identifying Opportunities for Collaboration (2017)
Tunis Agenda for the Information Society (WSIS) (2005)

Resources

Articles

The UN GGE on Cybersecurity: The Important Drudgery of Capacity Building (2015)
Cyber Capacity Building in Ten Points (2014)
Capacity Development. How Should We Reframe it for the Digital Age? (2014)
Internet Governance and Capacity Building: A View from the Developing World (2013)

Publications

Internet Governance Acronym Glossary (2015)
An Introduction to Internet Governance (2014)

Reports

One Internet (2016)
Internet for All: A Framework for Accelerating Internet Access and Adoption (2016)
The Digital Economy & Society Index (DESI) 2016 (2016)
Best Practice Forum on Strengthening Multistakeholder Participation Mechanisms (2015)
Developing Local Digital Leadership Skills and Capacity (2015)
Mobile for Development Impact (2015)
Cybersecurity Capacity Building in Developing Countries. Challenges and Opportunities (2015)
Riding the Digital Wave. The Impact of Cyber Capacity Development on Human Development (2014)
Best Practice Forum on Developing Meaningful Multistakeholder Mechanisms (2014)
Renewing the Knowledge Societies Vision for Peace and Sustainable Development (2013)
Smart Policies to Close the Digital Divide: Best Practices from Around the World (2012)

Conference proceedings

Message from the Geneva Internet Conference on Capacity Development (2015)

GIP event reports

Closing Session - Future of the IGF (2018)
The Domain Name System – How It Works (2018)
Open Mic Session (2018)
Create Your Digital Future: Transforming Lives and Businesses in Europe (2018)
Converging Markets and Blurred Borders – Challenges for E-commerce in Europe (2018)
Building on a Blockchain (2018)
The elephant in the room: The funding dimension of capacity development (2018)
Disrupting Development through Science, Technology and Innovation (2018)
Remedy against the Machine (2017)
Safer Internet for Children, Mitigation of Conflicts and Language and Communication for Peace (2017)
How Can Technological Solutions Advance Cybersecurity? (2017)
E-Caravan for Peace: Promoting E-commerce in Conflict and Post-conflict Situations’ (2017)
High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (2017)
Digital citizenship, Integration, and Participation (2017)
From Internet Users to Digital Citizens (2017)
Critical Internet Literacy (2017)
NRI Assembly – European Contribution to Global IG Process (2017)
Internet in the ‘Post-truth’ Era? (2017)
Youth Employment in the Digital Economy (2017)
Special Session on Assessing eTrade Readiness of the Least Developed Countries (2017)
Kickstart of the Just-in-Time Course on Digital Commerce: Internet Functionality and Business Models (2017)
E-commerce in Africa (2017)
Cybersecurity and Cybercrime: New Tools for Better Cyber Protection (2017)
Dialogue on the Way Forward – World Café (2017)
Good Practices in Knowledge Management in the United Nations System (2017)
ICANN58: Joint Meeting ICANN Board & Non-Commercial Stakeholders Group (2017)
ICANN58: Public Forum 1 & 2 (2017)
ICANN58: Internet Governance Public Session (2017)
Report for Briefing for Heads of Missions: Digital Policy in South Eastern Europe (2017)
Report for Second Physical Meeting of the WSIS Forum 2017 Open Consultation Process (2017)
Report for the Second meeting of the CSTD Working Group on Enhanced Cooperation (2017)

Other resources

The Digital Economy & Society Index (2016)
ICANN Meetings Fellowship Program
Education and Leadership Programmes by ISOC

Processes

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UNCTAD 2018

WSIS Forum 2018

12th IGF 2017

WTO Public Forum 2017

WSIS Forum 2017

IGF 2016

WTO Public Forum 2016

WSIS Forum 2016

WSIS10HL

IGF 2015

WSIS Forum 2016 Report

Capacity development depends on, but also complements efforts to, bridge the digital divide and ensure equal and inclusive access. ICT was unanimously described as a great enabler to bridge gaps between and within countries. Many panellists emphasised the importance of multistakeholder cooperation, private-public partnerships, and achieving local buy-in for successful capacity building.

The Moderated High-Level Policy Session (session 204) underscored the crucial importance of capacity development by linking it to the wellbeing of populations, economic and social development, justice, equality, and social inclusion. 

A number of panels stressed that capacity building is about expertise but also inclusion. Gender Equality and e-Skills Gap (session 178) emphasised gender equality and highlighted examples of individual ca-pacity building initiatives that aim to enable women to enter digital professions. Similarly, Acceleration of Girls Education and Rights to Ensure Sustainable Gender Empowerment Through ICTs (session 157) explicitly stressed the need to achieve gender equality in education and to include ICT skills in school curricula. SDG 4, calling for inclusive and equitable quality education, was the focus of Action Line C7 (E-learning) - Ensuring Inclusive and Equitable Quality Education and Promot- ing Lifelong Learning Opportunities for All (session 189), which also directly addressed WSIS Action Lines 4 (capacity building) and 7 (ICT applications, especially e-learning). Looking at Action Line 4, the WSIS Action Line Facilitators Meeting (session 236) argued that it is not the infrastructure we need to focus on but rather improving people’s abilities to use applications. Inclusion in the IG process was the topic of Engaging Under-Represented Communities in Regional and Global Internet Governance Debates (session 138) which focused on challenges to participating in regional and global debates and suggested ways to better engage underrepresented countries and communities. Funding participation in national and regional IGFs and supporting local initiatives were important topics in the IGFSA Informational Session (session 227).

Examples of capacity building, including regulatory capacity and projects to build knowledge societies, were shared in Capacity Building, a Gateway for Development (session 156). From the perspective of the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) and the International Professional Practice Partnership (IP3), The Contribution IFIP IP3 Makes to WSIS SDGs (session 170) addressed issues of building capacity for a professional ICT workforce. 

A number of sessions outlined key issues to be addressed to support capacity building. Advancing Internet Governance Principles and Practice (session 107) stressed the importance of developing IG principles. Existing principles need to be communicated and disseminated so that they are well understood at the local level, and the drafting of these principles needs to be inclusive. Focusing on the African context, How to Develop Appropriate Strategies for Linkages Between ICT and SGDs (session 171) emphasised the importance of creating infrastructure for access to ICT. Building institutional capacity needs to include African diplomats and leaders as well as NGOs, businesses, and universities. WSIS+10 and Beyond: Where do we Stand in Africa? (session 140) also addressed capacity building in Africa and focused in particular on infrastructure needs. Engaging Digital Actors, Fostering Effective Digital Policy and Monitoring Digital Governance (session 167) stressed the need for and value of synthesised knowledge on capacity building and discussed the key contributions of the GIP Digital Watch observatory in detail. With similar intentions, session 130 showcased the work of the Global Internet Policy Observatory Tool

 

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