Serbia is a candidate country for the European Union membership and has been pursuing economic and political reforms to align with the EU standards and values. Serbia has a diverse and dynamic digital landscape, with a growing ICT sector, a vibrant start-up scene, and a strong commitment to developing AI for social and economic benefits.

Internet governance

Serbia participates in the Berlin process for the Western Balkans, highlighting digital connectivity as one of the areas of cooperation under the ‘connectivity agenda.’ One key initiative from the perspective of IG within the Berlin process is the establishment of the EU’s Digital Agenda for the Western Balkans, focused on promoting digital connectivity and infrastructure development in the region, including expanding broadband access, improving digital literacy, and supporting digital entrepreneurship and innovation. In addition, the initiative has supported the establishment of a regional cybersecurity platform to enhance cooperation on cybersecurity issues and promote the development of cyber resilience in the WB. Other digital aspects of the Berlin Process include support for developing e-government and digital public services, and efforts to promote digital skills development and training.

Serbian stakeholders are active participants in various internet governance forums and initiatives at the regional and global levels. Serbian stakeholders participate in the annual South Eastern European Dialogue on Internet Governance (SEE+) and Dialogue on Internet Governance (EuroDIG) events, which bring together stakeholders from the region to discuss digital policy-related issues and challenges. At the global level, Serbia is a member of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF).

Serbia also has a national internet governance initiative called Serbian IGF, which was established as a bottom-up, multistakeholder platform for discussing internet-related public policy issues in Serbia.

The first national IGF Serbia was held in May 2022 in Belgrade. However, this is not the first time that a multistakeholder dialogue on IG issues has occurred in Serbia. The first meeting to focus on IG issues took place in 2009 in the form of panel debates. Between 2012 and 2014, an annual event, Serbian Internet Dialogue, was also held.

Digital strategies

Serbia has adopted several digital strategies in recent years to guide its digital transformation process.

  • Strategy for Development of Information Security 2019-2023 is a strategy that aims to improve the level of information security in Serbia and protect the rights and interests of citizens, businesses, and public administration in the digital environment. The strategy covers five areas: legal framework, institutional framework, capacity development, awareness raising, and international cooperation.
  • Digital Skills Development Strategy (2020-2024): contribute to raising the quality of life of all citizens in a modern environment, as well as to greater employment, work efficiency and the overall economic growth of society. Strategic measures are aimed at improving digital competences in the education system, acquiring and developing basic and advanced digital skills for all citizens, raising digital skills in relation to the needs of the labor market and implementing programs intended for ICT experts to monitor development and progress in technology. This strategy has four key strategic objectives
    • Improving digital competencies in the education system.
    • Improving basic and advanced digital skills for all citizens.
    • Developing digital skills in relation to the needs of the labour market.
    • Lifelong learning of ICT professionals.

Serbia has taken several steps to enhance its cybersecurity capabilities and resilience in recent years. Some of these steps are:

AI strategies and policies

Serbia has adopted a Strategy for Development of Artificial Intelligence in Serbia for the Period 2020-2025 in 2020 as the first national strategy on AI in the region. The strategy was developed through a participatory and inclusive process involving various stakeholders from academia, industry, government, civil society, and international organizations. The strategy aims to position Serbia as a regional leader in AI research and development and to use AI as a driver of economic growth, social welfare, and democratic values.

As part of the strategy, Serbia has announced the establishment of the Institute for Artificial Intelligence Research and Development in Serbia which will deal with the research into AI applications in various fields. The aim of the institute’s work is to create future personnel and attract investments in the field of AI.
The Serbian AI Society exemplifies the MSH approach through its incorporation of actors from various sectors, including academia, civil society, computer science, the government, and private industry. The society’s initiatives centre on enhancing capacity, facilitating discussions, conducting research, promoting awareness, and facilitating ecosystem collaboration in the field of AI.


France is a transcontinental country predominantly located in Western Europe and spanning overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Due to its several coastal territories, France has the largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Andorra, and Spain in continental Europe, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas via its overseas territories in French Guiana and Saint Martin.


Finland is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south. Helsinki is the capital and largest city, forming a larger metropolitan area with the neighbouring cities of Espoo, Kauniainen, and Vantaa.


Sweden is a Nordic country in Scandinavia. It borders Norway to the west and north, Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge–tunnel across the Öresund. Sweden is the largest Nordic country, the third-largest country in the European Union, and the fifth-largest country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Stockholm. Sweden has a total population of 10.5 million, and a low population density of 25.5 inhabitants per square kilometre (66/sq mi), with around 87% of Swedes residing in urban areas in the central and southern half of the country.


Luxembourg is a landlocked country in Western Europe. It borders Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Its capital and most populous city, Luxembourg, is one of the four institutional seats of the European Union (together with Brussels, Frankfurt, and Strasbourg) and the seat of several EU institutions, notably the Court of Justice of the European Union, the highest judicial authority. Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries and one of the least-populated countries in Europe. Luxembourg is a representative democracy headed by a constitutional monarch, Grand Duke, making it the world’s only remaining sovereign grand duchy.


Lithuania is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. It is one of three Baltic states and lies on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. Lithuania shares land borders with Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Russia to the southwest. It has a maritime border with Sweden to the west on the Baltic Sea. Lithuania’s capital and largest city is Vilnius; other major cities are Kaunas and Klaipėda.


Portugal’s mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula of Southwestern Europe, and its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira. It features the westernmost point in continental Europe, and its Iberian portion is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, the sole country to have a land border with Portugal. Its two archipelagos form two autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Lisbon is the capital and largest city by population.


Poland’s digital economy has been growing rapidly, driven by strong investments in ICT infrastructure and a flourishing startup ecosystem. The value of Poland’s digital economy was forecast at 122.6 billion euros in 2030. Poland also has a vibrant startup ecosystem, supported by government programs such as the Start In Poland initiative. This program provides funding and support for tech startups, fostering innovation, especially in areas like fintech, gaming, and health tech.

Internet governance

Poland has been actively working on improving internet governance to ensure a safe, secure, and open internet environment. The country’s efforts are aligned with both European Union regulations and global internet governance principles.

Through various agencies such as the Office of Electronic Communications (UKE), the Polish government regulates the internet to ensure compliance with national and EU laws. This includes managing internet service providers, digital broadcasting, and telecommunications.

Following the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Poland has updated its data protection frameworks to ensure robust privacy protections. The Personal Data Protection Office (UODO) enforces these regulations.

In previous years, significant investments have been made to enhance broadband connectivity across urban and rural areas. Poland aims to provide high-speed internet access nationwide as part of the Digital Poland Projects Centre (CPPC) initiative, which focuses on reducing digital divides.

The government is also focusing on improving digital literacy and skills among the population. Initiatives like the Digital School program and various vocational training programs aim to prepare citizens for the demands, opportunities, and challenges of the digital world.

Poland has been improving the provision of digital public services. The ePUAP platform is a central point for accessing public administration services online, streamlining processes like filing taxes, registering residences, and more.

Polish stakeholders are active participants in various internet governance forums and initiatives at the regional and global levels. Polish stakeholders also participate in the Dialogue on Internet Governance (EuroDIG) events, which bring together stakeholders from the region to discuss digital policy-related issues and challenges. At the global level, Poland is also a member of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF).

Poland also has a national internet governance initiative called IGF Poland, which was established as a bottom-up, multistakeholder platform for discussing internet-related public policy issues within the country.

Digital strategies

Poland is making significant strides toward enhancing its digital landscape through strategic initiatives aimed at fostering economic growth, improving public services, and bolstering digital literacy across the nation. These efforts are part of a broader commitment to leverage digital technologies to modernise various sectors and prepare the population for the demands of a digitally driven future.

A cornerstone of Poland’s digital strategy is the Integrated State Computerisation Programme, managed by the Ministry of Digital Affairs in collaboration with an array of public and private stakeholders. Launched in 2014 and set to continue through 2022, this initiative focuses on modernising public administration and enhancing the efficiency of state operations through innovative digital technologies. The programme’s overarching goal is to streamline the interaction between citizens and public administration, thus making governmental services more accessible and efficient.

Looking ahead, the Digital Competence Development Programme 2020-2030 sets an ambitious agenda to significantly enhance digital skills across various demographic and professional groups. This extensive initiative targets not only general citizens but also government employees, ICT specialists, and workers within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). By doing so, it aims to equip a broad segment of society with the necessary skills to navigate and thrive in a rapidly evolving digital world.

The programme is structured to address the urgent need for increased digital fluency, ensuring that all layers of society are prepared for the technological advancements shaping modern economies. From basic digital literacy to more specialised technical skills, the initiative is a key component of Poland’s strategy to enhance its human capital in the digital age.

One of the foremost priorities in Poland’s digital strategy is the expansion and enhancement of digital infrastructure. This includes significant investments in broadband and mobile internet access, particularly focusing on bridging the digital divide between urban and rural areas. The government aims to provide nationwide high-speed internet access, which is seen as crucial for enabling digital services and fostering economic growth. To this end, Poland has adopted ‘5G for Poland Strategy‘. The 5G strategy for Poland focuses on developing fifth-generation wireless communication networks as a high priority for the Polish government, aiming to significantly boost the economy. By 2025, the plan is to provide universal access to the internet with a minimum bandwidth of 100 Mb/s or higher for all Poles. 


In recent years, Poland has emerged as a focal point in the global landscape of cybersecurity. The onset of the Russian-Ukraine war has exacerbated the situation, leading to a significant uptick in cyber-attacks targeting the nation. These attacks are not only prevalent but also span a diverse array of sectors, including healthcare, finance, and government institutions, marking a critical era in Poland’s digital defence strategy.

In response to the growing cyber threats, the Polish government, spearheaded by the Ministry of Digital Affairs, has developed and implemented the Cybersecurity Strategy of the Republic of Poland for 2019-2024. This strategic document underscores the importance of resilience against cyber-attacks and the safeguarding of data across both military and private sectors. The primary objectives of the strategy include bolstering the national cybersecurity framework, enhancing the sharing of information pertaining to cyber threats, and refining the coordination among various law enforcement entities.

On the international stage, Poland is actively engaged in international cybersecurity collaboration, with the NASK Institute playing a pivotal role in both the research and implementation of effective cybersecurity measures. Poland has also ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime, commonly known as the Budapest Convention.

Poland has established several critical response units known as Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRT) and Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERT). These include:

  • CERT.PL (CERT POLSKA): Operating under the Research and Academic Computer Network (NASK), it focuses on national cybersecurity threats.
  • CERT Orange: Initially known as CSIRT Telekomunikacja Polska, this team caters to the cybersecurity needs of telecom service users.
  • CERT.GOV.PL: Serving government agencies, this bilingual (Polish and English) team addresses cybersecurity issues pertinent to the government sector.
  • Government Center for Security (RCB): This center plays a crucial role in the national security landscape, focusing on cybersecurity among other responsibilities.
AI strategies and policies

In December 2020, Poland unveiled a national AI strategy with goals to transform the education system, foster the growth and innovation of AI companies, bolster national and international AI partnerships, develop a robust data ecosystem, and strengthen digital infrastructure.

Core Areas of Focus:

Society, Education, and Science:

  • Educate the population on the benefits and necessities of AI.
  • Overhaul the education system to enhance AI and digital literacy.
  • Offer AI training programs and IT courses.

Economy and Public Affairs:

  • Create a virtual research institute for AI in partnership with corporations, universities, and NGOs.
  • Support AI research, development, and innovation across multiple facets.
  • Implement AI technologies in the public sector to maximize their potential.


  • Set up observatories and professorships to tackle ethical and legal issues in AI.
  • Keep track of AI regulations both from European and international bodies.


  • Develop a data policy that ensures the availability of high-quality data and enhances data sharing.
  • Establish virtual data warehouses to facilitate industry data sharing among companies.

Societal Challenges:

  • Fund AI projects that align with the objectives of the European Green Deal, which includes transforming energy production, advancing circular manufacturing, and cutting emissions.

The strategy’s overarching goals are to transform the education system, foster the growth and innovation of AI companies, bolster national and international AI partnerships, develop a robust data ecosystem, and strengthen digital infrastructure.