Commission on Science and Technology for Development
Address: Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
Stakeholder group: International and regional organisation
The CSTD is a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The Commission met for the first time in April 1993 in New York, USA. Since July 1993, the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has been hosting the CSTD secretariat, which holds an annual intergovernmental session for the discussion of timely and pertinent issues affecting science, technology, and development. CSTD members are national governments, but debates also involve representatives from academia, the private sector, and civil society. Strong links exist with other UN bodies (including the Commission on the Status of Women, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Regional Commissions, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA)). Outcomes of the CSTD include providing the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) and ECOSOC with high-level advice on relevant science and technology issues.
The CSTD reviews progress made in the implementation of and follow-up to the WSIS outcomes at the regional and international levels. It also discusses frontier technologies, which are largely linked with digitalisation. Based on reviews and discussions, the CSTD prepares draft resolutions for ECOSOC. These draft resolutions tackle issues ranging from access to the internet, information and communications technologies (ICTs), and frontier technologies to the use of these technologies in achieving sustainable development, particularly under the 2030 Agenda, including mitigating and adapting to climate change. At each of its annual sessions and intersessional panels, the CSTD addresses two priority themes regarding the use of STI including digital technologies, in different areas, for example, sustainable cities and communities; inclusive social and economic development; good health and well-being; opportunities and challenges associated with blockchain technology; capacity development; Industry 4.0 for inclusive development; and access to safe water and sanitation.
Digital policy issues
Artificial intelligence (1)
As part of its work on assessing the impact of technological change on inclusive and sustainable development, the CSTD is also exploring the role of frontier technologies including AI. At its 22nd session, the CSTD pointed out that AI and other frontier technologies offer significant opportunities to accelerate progress in the SDGs, while also posing new challenges (e.g. disrupting labour markets, exacerbating or creating new inequalities, and raising ethical questions). The CSTD focused its 2019–2020 intersessional work on digital frontier technologies, such as AI, big data, and robotics. For 2021, the CSTD chose another digital technology – blockchain for sustainable development – as a priority theme for its work. In 2022, the CSTD deliberated on Industry 4.0 technologies (such as AI, big data, IoT, and robotics) for inclusive development.
- Harnessing Rapid Technological Change for Inclusive and Sustainable Development (2020) (report for the 23rd CSTD session)
- Harnessing Blockchain for Sustainable Development: Prospects and Challenges (2021) (report for the 24th CSTD session)
- Industry 0 for Inclusive Development (2022) (report for the 25th CSTD session)
- CSTD Dialogue brings together leaders and experts to address the question: What must be done to ensure that the potential offered by STI towards achieving the SDGs is ultimately realised? This dialogue also aims to contribute to ‘rigorous thinking on the opportunities and challenges of STI in several crucial areas including gender equality, food security and poverty reduction.’
- Articles on the webpage explore AI-related issues, such as the role of AI in health, a principled approach to AI (written by actors from different stakeholder groups) and investing in AI-driven innovation for social good.
- A hybrid of physical and online side-event on AI strategies organised during the 25th CSTD.
During its annual sessions and intersessional panels, as well as in its draft resolutions for ECOSOC, the CSTD tackles aspects related to the digital divide, and outlines the need for further progress in addressing the impediments that developing countries face in accessing new technologies. It often underlines the need for coordinated efforts among all stakeholders to bridge the digital divide in its various dimensions: access to infrastructure, affordability, quality of access, digital skills, gender gap, and others. To this aim, the CSTD recommends policies and actions to improve connectivity and access to infrastructure, affordability, multilingualism and cultural preservation, digital skills and digital literacy, capacity development, and appropriate financing mechanisms.
- ECOSOC and General Assembly Resolutions related to WSIS and Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D)
As the UN focal point for STI for development, the CSTD analyses the impact of digital technologies on sustainable development (assessing opportunities, risks, and challenges), including from the perspective of the ‘leaving no one behind’ principle. The CSTD also works to identify strategies, policies, and actions to foster the use of technology to empower people (especially vulnerable individuals and groups) and ensure inclusiveness and equality. In addition, it acts as a forum for strategic planning, sharing of good practices, and providing foresight about emerging and disruptive technologies.
- UNGA Resolution: Impact of Rapid Technological Change on the Achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals
- UNGA Resolutions on STI for Development
- The Impact of Rapid Technological Change on Sustainable Development (2019). The paper was prepared by UNCTAD – which services the CSTD – in response to UNGA Resolution 72/242, which requests the CSTD to give due consideration to the impacts of key rapid technological changes on the achievement of the SDGs.
- CSTD Intersessional Panel Meeting – November 2021
Capacity development is one of the recurring themes that appear in draft resolutions prepared by the CSTD on the implementation of and follow-up to the WSIS outcomes. The CSTD often emphasises the need for countries and other stakeholders to focus on capacity development policies and actions to further enhance the role of the internet as a catalyst for growth and development. Strengthening the capacity of stakeholders to participate in internet governance processes is another objective the CSTD has been calling for, especially in regard to the Internet Governance Forum (IGF).
- Articles on the webpage explore issues related to capacity development, such as enhancing the participation of women and girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers (written by actors from different stakeholder groups).
- Project on using digital technologies: CropWatch Innovative Cooperation Programme
Interdisciplinary approaches: Internet governance
The CSTD was mandated to review the IGF process and suggest improvements. To this aim, the Working Group on Improvements to the IGF was established and a report recommending several action items regarding the IGF was delivered in 2012. The CSTD was also entrusted with the mandate to initiate discussions about enhanced cooperation in internet governance. It convened two working groups on enhanced cooperation (2013–2014 and 2016–2018); although consensus seemed to emerge on some issues, a divergence of views persisted on others and the Working Group could not find consensus on recommendations on how to further implement enhanced cooperation as envisioned in the Tunis Agenda.
- Report of the Chair of the Working Group on Enhanced Cooperation (2018)
- CSTD Working Group to Examine the Mandate of WSIS Regarding Enhanced Cooperation as Contained in the Tunis Agenda (2014)
- Working Group on Enhanced Cooperation (2016–2018)
- Working Group on Enhanced Cooperation (2013–2014)
UNCTAD is in charge of servicing the CSTD. As such, digital tools used by UNCTAD, for example, platform for online meetings, and social media for communications purposes are also employed for CSTD-related purposes. For instance, the 23rd and 24th CSTD annual sessions as well as the intersessional panel of the 24th CSTD were purely virtual, using the Interprefy platform. The intersessional panel and the annual session of the 25th CSTD were hybrid, combining online and in-person participation. The online platforms used were Interprefy and Zoom, respectively.
1-Within the work of the CSTD, AI is placed under the term ‘frontier technologies’, which also includes big data analytics, biotech and genome editing, and IoT, https://unctad.org/en/Pages/CSTD/CSTDAbout.aspx
2-In the CSTD’s work, disparities related to access to the internet are referred to as the ‘digital divide’.