Digital divide

Updates

Google launched a new app that will make it lighter to browse online, with search results optimized to save up to 40% data. The Google Go app will be available in 26 sub-Saharan Africa nations, is customized to function on Android devices with low storage and will load on slow and unstable connections including 2G networks. The app will allow for voice recognition-based searches (instead of typing), while easily switching between languages including Swahili. The app’s release is part of a recognition of how high data costs, inadequate digital infrastructure, geographical locations, and scarcity of content in local languages keep many Africans offline.

Mozilla launched the report Health of the Internet 2018. The Report draws on a wide body of existing research and on the work of activists worldwide. It aims to identify the issues that contribute to a less healthy internet from a human perspective. It also aims to encourage a broader understanding of how the problems facing the global Internet relate to one another. The report emphasises that the digital divide is not just about how many people have access to the Internet, but whether that access is safe and meaningful for all. It also presents chapters on digital literacy, openness and the economic of online platforms.

The UN Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development launched the document 2025 Targets: connecting the other half at the World Economic Forum, in Davos. With this document, the Commission updated its roadmap with the release of targets to assist in connecting the half of the world currently operating without Internet access. The Commission's goals are:

  • All countries to have a funded national broadband plan or strategy in place, or to include broadband in their definition of universal access and services;
  • entry-level broadband access should be made more affordable in developing nations at a maximum of two percent of the monthly gross income per capita;
  • access to the Internet should be available to 75 percent of people worldwide, up from a projected 50 percent by the end of 2019, with 65 percent of those in developing countries and at least 35 percent of those in least developed countries connected;
  • 60 percent of youth and adults should have achieved 'at least a minimum proficiency in sustainable digital skills';
  • 40 percent of the world's population to be using digital financial services;
  • a reduction in 'unconnectedness' of micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises (SME) by 50 percent in each sector; and
  • gender equality should be achieved across all targets.

Sweden passed a law to ensure universal Internet service at a minimum of 10 Mbps for downloads. The regulation sets a maximum cost of SEK 5,000 (50 euros) for any home or business to get an internet access that would be good enough for them to play a part in society. The rule guaranteeing universal access enters force on 01 March 2018.

Microsoft has published as updated version of its A Cloud for Global Good policy roadmap, originally released in October 2016. The 2018 edition reflects recent developments in areas such as cloud computing, artificial intelligence (AI), and machine learning, and contains several policy recommendations for 'governments, industry and civil society to consider as they realise the opportunities and address the challenges presented by the Fourth Industrial Revolution'. These recommendations are clustered in three broad categories. The 'Trusted cloud' category contains recommendations about protecting personal privacy, government access to data, promoting the free-flow of data, ensuring secure and reliable infrastructure, creating a Digital Geneva Convention, and preventing cybercrime. Under 'Responsible cloud' are recommendations focused on protecting both human rights and public safety, reducing technology fraud and online exploitation, promoting environmental sustainability, and amplifying human ingenuity through AI. The third cluster 'Inclusive cloud' outlines recommendations targeted at providing affordable connectivity everywhere, preparing people for the new world of work, and including people with disabilities.

The United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is considering changes to its Lifeline program that helps low-income Americans pay for telephone and internet service. The changes would also to allow telecom companies to decommission aging DSL connections in rural areas without replacing them. The proposed changes to the Lifeline program would allegedly reduce the available subsidies, make them available to fewer people, and cover fewer carriers.

The digital divide can be defined as a rift between those who, for technical, political, social, or economic reasons, have access and capabilities to use ICT/Internet, and those who do not. Various views have been put forward about the size and relevance of the digital divide. Digital divide(s) exist at different levels: within countries and between countries, between rural and urban populations, between the old and the young, as well as between men and women.

The OECD refers to the digital divide as ‘the gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas at different socioeconomic levels with regard both to their opportunities to access information and communication technologies (ICTs) and to their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities’.

 

 

Digital divides are not independent phenomena. They reflect existing broad socio-economic inequalities in education, healthcare, capital, shelter, employment, clean water, and food. This was clearly stated by the G8 Digital Opportunity Task Force (DOT Force): ‘There is no dichotomy between the “digital divide” and the broader social and economic divides which the development process should address; the digital divide needs to be understood and addressed in the context of these broader divides.’

Is the digital divide widening?

ICT/Internet developments leave the developing world behind at a much faster rate than advances in other fields (e.g. agricultural or medical techniques) and, as the developed world has the necessary tools to successfully use these technological advances, the digital divide appears to be continuously and rapidly widening. This is frequently the view expressed in various highly regarded documents, such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Reports and the ILO Global Employment Reports.

Some opposing views argue that statistics on the digital divide are often misleading and that the digital divide is in fact not widening at all. According to this view, the traditional focus on the number of computers, the number of Internet websites, or the available bandwidth should be replaced with a focus on the broader impact of ICT/Internet on societies in developing countries. Frequently quoted examples are the digital successes of Brazil, India, and China. However, the criteria for assessing the digital divide gaps are also changing and becoming more complex in order to better capture the development realities. Current assessments take into account aspects like ICT readiness and overall ICT impact on society. The World Economic Forum has developed the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) as a new approach in measuring the Internet-level of countries worldwide. It also provides new perspectives on how the digital divide is addressed.

Universal access

In addition to the digital divide, another frequently mentioned concept in the development debate is universal access, i.e., access for all. Although it should be the cornerstone of any digital development policy, differing perceptions and conceptions of the nature and scope of this universal access policy remain. The question of universal access at global level remains largely an open issue, ultimately dependent on the readiness of developed countries to invest in the realisation of this goal.

Unlike universal access at global level, in some countries universal access is a well-developed economic and legal concept. Providing telecommunication access to all citizens has been the basis of US telecommunication policy. The result has been a well-developed system of various policy and financial mechanisms, the purpose of which is to subsidise access costs in remote areas and regions with high connection costs. The subsidy is financed by regions with low connection costs, primarily the big cities. The EU has also taken a  number of concrete steps towards achieving universal access by promoting policies to ensure every citizen has access to basic communication services, including Internet connection, and enacting specific regulations thereof.

Strategies for overcoming the digital divide

The technologically centred development theory, which has dominated policy and academic circles over the past 50 years, argues that development depends on the availability of technology. However, this approach failed in many countries (mainly former socialist countries) where it became obvious that the development of society is a much more complex process. Technology is a necessary but  not self-sufficient precondition for development. Other elements include a regulatory framework, financial support, available human resources, and other sociocultural conditions. Even if all of these ingredients are present, the key challenge remains of how and when they should be used, combined, and interplayed.

Events

Actors

(BCSD)

The Commission promotes the adoption of practices and policies that enable the deployment of broadband network

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The Commission promotes the adoption of practices and policies that enable the deployment of broadband networks at national level, especially within developing countries. It engages in advocacy activities aimed to demonstrate that broadband networks are basic infrastructures in modern societies and could accelerate the achievement of the sustainable development goals. The Commission publishes an annual State of the Broadband Report, providing an overview of broadband network access and affordability, with country-by-country data measuring broadband access. Other reports, open letters, and calls for actions issues by the Commission also underline the benefits of broadband as a critical infrastructure towards achieving growth and development.

(ITU, UIT)
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The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) develops international standards (called recommendations) covering information and communications technologies. Standards are developed on a consensus-based approach, by study groups composed of representatives of ITU members (both member states and companies). These groups focus on a wide range of topics: operational issues, economic and policy issues, broadband networks, Internet protocol based networks, future networks and cloud computing, multimedia, security, the Internet of Things and smart cities, and performance and quality of service. The World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly (WTSA), held every four years, defines the next period of study for the ITU-T.

(A4AI)

A4AI promotes affordable Internet access in developing countries through three strands.

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A4AI promotes affordable Internet access in developing countries through three strands. First, advocating A4AI policy and regulatory good practices and encouraging different stakeholders to adopt evidence-based ICT policy at the heart of their agendas. Second, conducting and promoting policy and research including: an affordability report which examines policy frameworks that support the affordability and accessibility of the Internet; thematic case studies and country case studies; and a knowledge bank which highlights high-quality research on affordability-related matters produced by members and other leading organisations. Third, working on the ground to build national multistakeholder coalitions to develop solutions tailored to local realities.

(EU)

In establishing its digital single market, the EU has progressively developed a dense 

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In establishing its digital single market, the EU has progressively developed a dense copyright legislation corresponding to a set of ten directives, which harmonise essential rights of authors, performers, producers and broadcasters. To ensure EU copyright rules are fit for the digital age, the European Commission has recently presented legislative proposals to modernise the EU legal framework, in order to allow more cross-border access to content online and wider opportunities to use copyrighted materials in education, research and cultural heritage; and have a better functioning copyright marketplace.

(CSTD)

The CSTD reviews progress made in the implementation of and follow-up to the WSIS outcomes at the regional and

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The CSTD reviews progress made in the implementation of and follow-up to the WSIS outcomes at the regional and international level, and it prepares draft resolutions for the UN Economic and Social Council. These draft resolutions tackle issues ranging from access to information and communication technologies (ICT) and Internet, to  the use of ICTs for early warning and mitigating climate change. At its annual sessions and inter-sessional panels, the Commission also addresses development-related themes such as: science, technology, and innovation for sustainable cities and communities; ICT for inclusive social and economic development; digital development; Internet broadband for inclusive societies; and smart cities and infrastructure.

(NetHope)

NetHope’s work addresses the digital divide both directly and indirectly, by leveraging the cross-sector colla

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NetHope’s work addresses the digital divide both directly and indirectly, by leveraging the cross-sector collaboration of its members and partners. Its current projects include, among others, refugee assistance by providing mobile connectivity in the Syrian crisis, and broadband connectivity in Kenya, and by actively fighting the digital divide in Kenya through TV White Space technology, thus providing cheap and fast broadband connection. NetHope has also launched the Women and Web Alliance initiative, together with other partners, with the aim to contribute to bridging the gender digital divide.

Instruments

Resolutions & Declarations

IPU Resolution on the Contribution of new information and communication technologies to good governance, the improvement of parliamentary democracy and the management of globalization (2003)

Other Instruments

Tunis Agenda for the Information Society (WSIS) (2005)

Resources

Articles

Bridging the Digital Divide in the EU (2015)

Publications

Internet Governance Acronym Glossary (2015)
An Introduction to Internet Governance (2014)

Reports

One Internet (2016)
Advancing Digital Societies in Asia (2016)
Internet for All: A Framework for Accelerating Internet Access and Adoption (2016)
A Pre-Feasibility Study on the Asia-Pacific Information Superhighway in the ASEAN Sub-region: Conceptualization, International Traffic & Quality Analysis, Network Topology Design and Implementation Model (2016)
The Digital Economy & Society Index (DESI) 2016 (2016)
State of Connectivity 2015: A Report on Global Internet Access (2016)
Digital Inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean (2016)
Closing the Coverage Gap: Digital Inclusion in Latin America (2016)
Smartphone Ownership and Internet Usage continues to climb in Emerging Economies (2016)
A New Regulatory Framework for the Digital Ecosystem (2016)
Proliferation of Indian Languages on Internet (2016)
2016 Digital yearbook (2016)
NI Trend Watch 2016 (2015)
Measuring the Information Society 2015 (2015)
The 2015 BCG e-Intensity Index (2015)
UNESCO Science Report: Towards 2030 (2015)
The Mobile Economy - Arab States 2015 (2015)
Women's Rights Online: Translating Access into Empowerment (2015)
Mobile for Development Impact (2015)
The State of Broadband 2015 (2015)
Global Internet Report 2015 (2015)
The Global Information Technology Report 2015: ICTs for Inclusive Growth (2015)
Renewing the Knowledge Societies Vision for Peace and Sustainable Development (2013)
The Relationship between Local Content, Internet Development and Access Prices (2013)
Smart Policies to Close the Digital Divide: Best Practices from Around the World (2012)

GIP event reports

High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (2017)
Key-note Speeches on the Future of the Internet (2017)
Launch of eTrade for all Online Platform (2017)
Report for ITU CWG-Internet - 4th Physical Open Consultation Meeting (2017)

Other resources

Action Plan to Close the Digital Gender Gap (2015)

Processes

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UNCTAD 2018

WSIS Forum 2018

12th IGF 2017

WTO Public Forum 2017

WSIS Forum 2017

IGF 2016

WTO Public Forum 2016

WSIS Forum 2016

WSIS10HL

IGF 2015

IGF 2016 Report

 

Internet access and connecting the unconnected (Dynamic Coalition on Connecting the Unconnected) was one of the main themes at the IGF 2016 in Guadalajara. The topic was approached from various angles, one of which was community networks, which was dis- cussed by a new Dynamic Coalition on Community Connectivity, as well as in pre-events and workshops. Challenges and opportunities to access were broken down for: different regions, such as Latin America (The right to access the Internet in Latin America - WS266) and Asia (Asia and the Next Billion: Challenges in Digital Inclusion - WS14); several digital divides, with a focus on connecting gender (Best Practice Forum on Gender & Access), minorities (Lighting Session on Human Rights Online: Internet Access and Minorities), and persons with disabilities (Dynamic Coalition on Accessibility and Disabilities); as well as for specific technologies and initiatives, such as open source (Open Source: A Key Enabler on the Path to the Next Billion - WS21), Wi-Fi (Public Wi-Fi/Open Access Models in Developing Countries - WS161), and public access in libraries (Dynamic Coalition on Public Access in Libraries). In addition, there was consensus that meaningful access is more than infrastructure alone; it includes affordability, capacity (Building ‘Demand-Side’ Capacity for Internet Deployment - WS9), and local content (Local content and sustainable growth - WS22) with linguistic diversity (Enhancing Linguistic and Cultural Diversity in Cyberspace - WS19). The notion that there should be no ‘Internet for the poor’ enjoyed widespread agreement, with zero-rating practices being criticised.

WSIS Forum 2016 Report

 

Nearly half of the global population still lacks broadband Internet access, while the importance of the Internet in society has grown. The whole planet should work hand-in-hand to permit everybody to have a fair share of this latest revolution, which would require the support of all relevant stakehold-ers (session 225 on the Global Connect Initiative). Governments not only need to put in place effective policies, but they should also change their per- ception of broadband, recognising it as a core infrastructure that is as important for economic growth and development as the transportation and power infrastructures.

Action Line C6 (Enabling Environment) - Affordable Access for Sustainable Development (session 119) highlighted the need to adopt the right policy and regulations. The affordability of the Internet and related regulations was analysed from the viewpoints of different regions, including West Africa, Latin America, and the Pacific. The session further underlined the importance of collaborations between governments and the industry. Affordability was also highlighted during the WSIS Action Line Facilitators Meeting (session 236) and solutions might be found in enhancing mobile infrastructure.

The digital divide, separating those connected to the Internet and those who lack Internet access, exists between countries and regions, as well as between different groups in society. Action Line C2 (ICT Infrastructure) - Evolving Affordable Broadband Infrastructure for Bringing ICT to All (session 121) indicated some of these divides, including the rural vs urban divide and the divide between developing and developed countries. The challenge of enhancing Internet connectivity in Africa, in particular related to infrastructure and multistakeholder collaboration, was highlighted in WSIS+10 and Beyond: Where do we Stand in Africa? (session 140). Accessibility was also discussed from a human rights perspective.

One particular part of the ‘access’ debate concerns the need for access to information. In Establish an Inclusive, Shared and Open Information Environment, Ensure All Enjoy Information Civilization (session 184), panellists discussed ways to have everyone benefit from communication facilities, including the elderly and disabled persons. Access to knowledge was also addressed in Action Line C3 (Access) - Access to Scientific Knowledge (session 115), which focused on scientific knowledge and the need to break down ‘knowledge monopolies’.

In general, the forum highlighted not only that governments have a responsibility to design effective policies and provide a suitable regulatory environment, but that the Internet industry can also play an important role by designing new business models and crafting innovative ideas. The underlying sentiment was that efforts to increase access and close the digital divide are driven by a wide range of stakeholders who need to create an enabling environment, so that everyone can benefit from the advantages of connectivity. 

IGF 2015 Report

 

Digital divide was addressed in the context of the Internet economy in a number of workshops. With reference to taxation and developing countries, a panellist in Economics of the Global Internet (WS 207), said that despite the economic benefits of accessing ICTs, this did not mean that taxation was not required, but that a more balanced fiscal policy was needed. In How to Bridge the Global Internet Economy Divide (WS 97), a Google representative anchored the discussion to geographical realities: ‘Both regions have challenges, but slightly different. In Europe it’s about scaling and in Africa it is more about access.’ The main challenge, therefore – as suggested in the main session on Internet Economy and Sustainable Development – was how to narrow the divide and empower developing countries. Additionally, we need to tap in to the potential of the Internet economy as a social and economic equaliser.

 

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