The report by special counsel Robert Muller on Russian influence on the US presidential elections in 2016 was published in the redacted form on April 18. The document among other things describes steps taken by Russian military officers from GRU and information campaigns organized by Internet Research Agency (IRA) in social networks.
It was investigated that GRU officers sent malicious links to several accounts linked to to the domain of Hillary Clinton's personal office to gain the access to the emails hours after Donald Trump in his campaign sarcastically called Russia to track down missing Clinton's emails with sensitive state information.
Secondly, the Mueller’s team identified that IRA organized several political rallies in the US in support of Trump’s campaign using social media and coordinating this rallies through Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Moreover, messages created by IRA accounts were promoted and amplified by the Trump campaign officials. It led to the public discord in social media.
Finally, the report concludes that Democratic National Committee leaks that GRU obtained and retailed through its DCLeaks and WikiLeaks represented much more interference. The information campaigns though offered some benefit for the Trump campaign, but the investigation did not identify evidence that any US persons knowingly or intentionally coordinated with IRA members.
Cybersecurity is among the main concerns of governments, Internet users, technical and business communities. Cyberthreats and cyberattacks are on the increase, and so is the extent of the financial loss.
Yet, when the Internet was first invented, security was not a concern for the inventors. In fact, the Internet was originally designed for use by a closed circle of (mainly) academics. Communication among its users was open.
Cybersecurity came into sharper focus with the Internet expansion beyond the circle of the Internet pioneers. The Internet reiterated the old truism that technology can be both enabling and threatening. What can be used to the advantage of society can also be used to its disadvantage.
Cyber-attacks can have a background in international relations, or bring about the consequences that can escalate to a political and diplomatic level. An increasing number of states appear to be developing their own cyber-tools for the defense, offence and intelligence related to cyberconflict.
The use of cyber-weapons by states - and, more generally, the behavior of states in cyberspace in relation to maintaining international peace and security - is moving to the top of the international agenda.