After the U.S. presidential election, Google, Facebook, and Twitter faced severe criticism regarding the spread of 'false information' on their platforms, which may have convinced voters to vote for Republican candidate Donald Trump. In response, Google and Facebook have announced to be working on changes to prevent 'fake news' websites to use their respective advertising networks.
Intermediaries play a vital role in ensuring Internet functionality. In several Internet governance areas, such as copyright infringement and spam, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are considered key online intermediaries. In other areas, such as defamation and the so-called right to be forgotten, the responsibility extends to hosts of online content and search engines.
One of the main sociocultural issues is content policy, often addressed from the standpoints of human rights (freedom of expression and the right to communicate), government (content control), and technology (tools for content control). Discussions usually focus on three groups of content: