According to a report published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, at least 75 countries are actively using artificial intelligence (AI) technology for surveillance purposes. Such technologies include facial recognition systems, smart city platforms, and smart policing tools. Among the 75 countries, 63 procure their AI surveillance technology from Chinese companies. Huawei alone provides such tools to at least 55 countries worldwide. US companies – such as IBM, Palantir and Cisco – also supply AI surveillance technology to 32 countries. The report also found a correlation between a country’s military expenditures and a government’s use of AI surveillance systems: 40 of the world’s top 50 military spending countries (based on cumulative military expenditures) also use AI surveillance technology. It is worthwhile noting that the report considers AI technologies that directly support surveillance objectives, and it does not distinguish between legitimate and unlawful uses of AI surveillance.