The European Commission adopted an updated version of the EU cyber defence policy framework. The purpose of the framework is to take into account the changing security challenges since the original framework of 2014. The updated framework identifies six priority areas for cyber defence: development of cyber defence capabilities, protection of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) communication and information networks, training and exercises, research and technology, civil-military cooperation and international cooperation. and clarifies the roles of the different European actors. It also clarifies the roles of European actors within these six areas, including EU member states, the European Commission, the European Defence Agency (EDA), the European External Action Service (EEAS), the European Security and Defence College (ESDC), the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA), the European Cybercrime Centre (EC3) and CERT-EU.
Cybersecurity is among the main concerns of governments, Internet users, technical and business communities. Cyberthreats and cyberattacks are on the increase, and so is the extent of the financial loss.
Yet, when the Internet was first invented, security was not a concern for the inventors. In fact, the Internet was originally designed for use by a closed circle of (mainly) academics. Communication among its users was open.
Cybersecurity came into sharper focus with the Internet expansion beyond the circle of the Internet pioneers. The Internet reiterated the old truism that technology can be both enabling and threatening. What can be used to the advantage of society can also be used to its disadvantage.
Cyber-attacks can have a background in international relations, or bring about the consequences that can escalate to a political and diplomatic level. An increasing number of states appear to be developing their own cyber-tools for the defense, offence and intelligence related to cyberconflict.
The use of cyber-weapons by states - and, more generally, the behavior of states in cyberspace in relation to maintaining international peace and security - is moving to the top of the international agenda.