United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime
Conventions and Treaties
The UN Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime (UNTOC) was adopted by the General Assembly in November 2000 and is the main international instrument that provides measures to combat transnational organized crime. The convention criminalises acts including organised group crime, money laundering, corruption, and obstruction of justice. The convention also enhances international cooperation and promotes training and technical assistance. It has three additional protocols that expand the criminalisation of certain activities.
The first is the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children. The protocol provides an international definition of trafficking in persons that will enhance and facilitate international cooperation in investigating and prosecuting criminals involved in human trafficking cases.
The Second is the Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea, and Air; it lists measures to prevent and combat the smuggling of migrants, to enhance international cooperation, to protect the rights of smuggled migrants, and to prevent the worst forms of exploitation.
Finally, the Protocol Against the Illicit Manufacturing or Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components, and Ammunition obliges states to implement legal orders relating to: illegal manufacturing and trafficking of firearms; licensing of firearms, and marking and tracing firearms.