Outcome Document & Chair Summary of G20 Digital Economy Ministers Meeting 2023

19 Aug 2023

Resolutions and Declarations

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Outcome Document & Chair’s Summary  | G20 Digital Economy Ministers Meeting 

Bengaluru, 19 August 2023 

This is the presentation of the text which is officially published by the India’s G20 portal.

The Outcome Document comprises the entire text, which was unanimously agreed to by all  G20 members, except for Paragraph 24 which pertains to the Chair’s Summary 


1. We, the G20 Ministers responsible for the digital economy, met on 19 August 2023,  at Bengaluru to deepen our discussions on digital innovation and inclusion, digital  skilling, and security in the digital economy. 

2. We recognise  the importance of creating an enabling, inclusive, open,  fair, non discriminatory, and secure digital economy. In the context of digital economy, we  also respect applicable legal frameworks. We take cognizance of the critical role  played by digital technologies in helping the world navigate the myriad challenges  posed  by  the  COVID-19  pandemic  and  the  lack  of  technological  and  financial  capacity in many countries to develop and deploy well-designed, inclusive, secure,  trusted, resilient, sustainable, open, safe, and interoperable digital systems  that  respect human rights to unleash the potential of the digital economy. Therefore,  we  acknowledge  the  importance  of  adopting  an  inclusive,  sustainable,  development-oriented  and  human-centric  approach  that  protects  privacy  and  data, to respond to various challenges and leverage opportunities of digitalisation.  

3. We  acknowledge  that  digital  divides,  including  the  gender  digital  divide,  are  a  considerable  challenge  for  all  countries,  especially  in  developing  and  least  developed  countries.  Noting  our  deliberations  to  bridge  the  digital  divides  undertaken  during  previous G20  presidencies,  we  reaffirm  the  urgency  to  accelerate  inclusive  digital  transformation  for  all,  especially  for  underserved  groups and people in vulnerable situations. 

4. We  recognise  that  the  availability  and  accessibility of  high-quality  digital  connectivity based on sustainable, high-performance, secure and resilient digital  infrastructure is  critical  for  the  future.  Building  on  G20  achievements  over  the  years, we reaffirm our commitment  to bridge connectivity gaps, and encourage  the goal of promoting universal and affordable access to connectivity for all. While  we continue to welcome global efforts towards universal connectivity, we seek to  collectively work towards making connectivity more meaningful, by empowering  users  and  maximising  the  benefits  of  the  Internet  for  all  in  order  to  facilitate  economic growth and sustainable development. 

5. We recognise that accessible, inclusive, secure, and safe digital systems have the  potential  to  drive  the  economy  of  the  future  and  catalyse  growth,  innovation,  education,  and  sustainable  development.  We  also  reaffirm  the  importance  of security in the digital economy as a key enabling factor and recognise that digital  skilling initiatives can accelerate the growth of the digital economy. 

A. Digital Public Infrastructure for Digital Inclusion and Innovation:  

6. Under  the  Indian  Presidency’s  initiative,  we  recognise  that  digital  public  infrastructure, hereinafter referred to as DPI, is described as a set of shared digital  systems  that  should  be  secure  and  interoperable,  and  can  be  built  on  open  standards and specifications to deliver and provide equitable access to public and  /  or  private  services  at  societal  scale  and  are  governed  by  applicable  legal  frameworks and enabling rules to drive development, inclusion, innovation, trust,  and  competition  and  respect  human  rights  and  fundamental  freedoms.  Considering the diverse approaches of G20 members to digital transformation, we  recognize that DPI is an evolving concept that may not be limited to sets of digital  systems  with  these  characteristics  and  could  be  tailored  to  specific  country  contexts and can be referred to with different terminologies. 

7. Meaningful connectivity can be enhanced through human-centric, development oriented,  sustainable,  scalable,  secure,  accessible,  and inclusive  digital  systems,  such  as  DPI,  that  have  demonstrated  their  potential.  As  technological  advancements  continue  to  offer  opportunities  to  transform  public  and  private  sector service delivery, DPI offers a promising approach to digital transformation  by providing a shared technology infrastructure that can be built and leveraged  by  both  the  public  and  private  sectors.  During  the  COVID-19  pandemic,  DPI  demonstrated its effectiveness by enabling easier access and delivery of services  through  innovative  public  and  private  sector  solutions.  When  developing,  deploying, and governing DPI we note the importance of prioritising secure and  inclusive  approaches  that  respect  human  rights  and  protect  personal  data,  privacy, and intellectual property rights. For this, we recognise the importance of  governance frameworks and institutional capabilities that seek to ensure that DPI  is safe, secure, trusted, accountable, and inclusive. We also recognise the role DPI  can play in furthering meaningful connectivity and accelerating progress toward  implementing  the  2030  Agenda  for  Sustainable  Development  and  achieving  Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).  

8. We underline the importance of sharing domestic experiences and learnings in the  development and deployment of DPI, within and beyond the G20, to fully harness  the  opportunities  offered  by  DPI  and  provide  reference  to  other  countries,  including Low-and-Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Towards this, we welcome  the G20 Framework for Systems of Digital Public Infrastructure (Annexure 1),  a  voluntary  and  suggested  framework  for  the  development,  deployment,  and  governance  of  DPI.  The  framework  covers  the  technology  as  well  as  non technology  components, which include  governance  and  community,  along with  the  suggested  principles  for  building  robust,  inclusive,  human-centric,  and  sustainable  DPI.  We  also  note  that  the  framework  provides  flexibility  to  G20  members and other countries in terms of choice of technology and approaches to  DPI. We affirm the importance of ensuring appropriate levels of privacy and data protection in accordance with applicable legal frameworks. We take cognisance of  some  of  the  basic  DPI  for  domestic  purposes,  such  as  digital  identity,  digital  payment  systems,  and  data-sharing  mechanisms  with  consent  wherever  applicable, among others, which can enable secure identification, fast and reliable  payments, and seamless exchange of data/information respectively. They can also  act as  foundational layers across sectors like health, agriculture, manufacturing,  and education among others.  

9. Within the context of DPI, we recognise the importance of promoting open-source  software, open Application Programming Interfaces (API) and the standards that  support  them,  including  open  standards,  to  enable  different  DPI  systems  to  communicate, with cross-border interoperability as a long-term goal. We reaffirm  the importance of enabling cross-border data flows and data free flow with trust,  while respecting applicable legal  frameworks.  In  this context, while reaffirming  the role of data for development, we highlight the work carried out in this topic by  the Development Working Group during the Indian Presidency. 

10. Acknowledging  the  growing  demand  and  financing  for  DPI  implementation  in  LMICs, we  recognise  the  need  for a  comprehensive, multistakeholder approach  with coordinated and voluntary financing and technical assistance, while ensuring  adequate monitoring of progress and impact. We also acknowledge that the lack  of adequate safeguards, sustained financing, and technical assistance can result in  poorly developed DPI leading to several risks including data breaches and privacy  violations,  improper and  unlimited  access  to  personal  data,  violation  of  intellectual property rights, and security risks.  In view of this, we underline the  need  to  embrace  global  multistakeholder  approaches,  to  build  capacity,  and  provide  technical  assistance  and  adequate  funding  support  for  implementing  robust, inclusive, human-centric, and sustainable DPI in LMICs. In this regard, we  note the discussion initiated by the Indian Presidency on its proposal of the One  Future  Alliance  (OFA),  a  voluntary  initiative  that  aims  to  bring  together  governments,  the  private  sector,  academic  and  research  institutions,  donor  agencies, civil society organisations and other relevant stakeholders and existing  mechanisms to synergize global efforts in the DPI ecosystem. 

11. We acknowledge the existing gap in information and knowledge sharing on DPI.  To  bridge  this  gap,  we  recommend  strengthening  ongoing  efforts  and  building  upon  existing  registries.  Towards  this,  we  welcome  India’s  plan  to  build  and  maintain  a  Global  Digital  Public  Infrastructure  Repository  (GDPIR),  a  virtual  repository of DPI voluntarily shared by G20 members and beyond. The repository  aims  to share  the practices and experiences of development and deployment of  DPI which may include relevant tools and resources in different countries. 

B. Building Safety, Security, Resilience and Trust in the Digital Economy: 

12. Given the significant growth of the digital economy and the need  for promoting  safety, trust, reliability, resilience and protecting privacy and data, we affirm that security in  the  digital  economy  is  an  increasing  priority  for  all  countries  and  stakeholders. 

13. Under the 2017 German G20 Presidency, we acknowledged that trust and security  were essential to harness the potential of the digital economy. These values were  reaffirmed  in  2018,  2019,  and  2020  under  the  Argentine,  Japanese,  and  Saudi  Arabian G20 Presidencies, respectively. Further, during  the 2020 Saudi Arabian  G20 Presidency and 2021 Italian G20 Presidency, we recognised that security in  the  digital  economy  is  a  key  enabling  factor  for  sustainable  development  and  growth.  We  continued  the  discussion  under  the  Indonesian  G20  Presidency  in  2022  on  the  existing  practices  on  digital  security  as  a  key  enabler  to  support  business continuity.  

14. We recognise that digital solutions have become key enablers for service delivery  in health, finance, education, manufacturing, public services, and utilities among  other  important  sectors  of  the  economy.  Safety,  security,  resilience,  and  trust  within  the  digital  economy  are  vital  to  advance  digital  transformation  and  effectively harness the opportunities and address various challenges it presents.  

15. We also recognise that global interconnectedness and digital dependencies across  sectors and borders can create shared security risks associated with  the digital  economy that a single entity may not be capable of addressing alone. The digital  economy  has  multiple  layers,  and,  therefore,  there  is  a  risk  that  breaches  or  incidents at any layer may disrupt the functioning of the whole ecosystem. Due to  the  borderless  nature  of  the  digital  environment,  it  is  important  for  the  G20  members and beyond to share their approaches and good practices to build a safe,  secure, and resilient digital economy.  

16. We  acknowledge  that  preventing  and  mitigating  security  threats  to  the  digital  economy depends on stakeholders’ capacities to understand, anticipate, prepare  for, and respond to these threats. Therefore, we endeavour to further a common  understanding  of  security  risk  management  for  the continuity  of  businesses,  including Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), in the digital economy.  To this end, we welcome the non-binding G20 High-Level Principles to Support  Businesses  in  Building  Safety,  Security,  Resilience,  and  Trust  in  the  Digital  Economy  (Annexure  2A) which  draw  from  the  practices,  strategies  and  tools  developed  and  implemented  by  G20  members.  These  principles  seek  to  strengthen resilience in  the digital economy by promoting a culture of security,  capacity  building,  multi-stakeholder  cooperation  and  supporting  research  and  development.  

17. We  recognise  the  potential  risks associated with  the  digital economy and  their  impact  on  society,  particularly  children  and  youth. Considering  that  the  digital  environment  opens  new  avenues  for  children  and  the  youth  to  explore  their  creativity,  enhance  their  learning  experience,  and  work  collaboratively,  we  acknowledge that the increased access to digital tools and services can increase  exposure to a spectrum of risks to which children are especially vulnerable, such as, cyberbullying and grooming, and child sexual abuse and exploitation as well as  risks related  to  their personal data and privacy. We also recognise  that women  and girls are disproportionately affected by technology  facilitated gender-based  violence.  In  2021,  under  the  Italian  G20  Presidency,  we  adopted  High  Level  Principles for Children Protection and Empowerment in the Digital Environment.  We  reaffirm  that  cyber  education  and  cyber  awareness  for  the  protection  and  empowerment of children and youth in the digital ecosystem, including protecting  their  best  interests  and  respecting  human  rights  in  the  digital  environment  continues to be one of our key priority areas.  

18. We welcome the Indian Presidency’s G20 Toolkit on Cyber Education and Cyber  Awareness of Children and Youth 1The document “G20 Toolkit for Cyber Education and Cyber Awareness for Children and Youth” was produced by the Indian G20 Presidency and is based on the responses provided by the G20 members and guest countries to the Cyber Security Questionnaire circulated by the Indian Presidency. Annexure 2B contains a brief summary of this toolkit (Annexure 2B) that recognises the important  role of the UN Convention on Rights of the Child and the need to develop holistic,  human-centric approaches to address online safety across different jurisdictions  which promote respect for and facilitate governments’ efforts to protect children’s  privacy and personal data, uphold children’s dignity, and respect their rights.  

C. Digital Skilling for Building a Global Future Ready Workforce: 

19. We recognise that the increasing digital skill gaps among our societies, economies  and  the  workforce  can  be  disruptive  for  the  digital  economy  and  result  in  increasing digital divides, particularly for women and girls. Therefore, we resolve  to enhance our collective efforts to promote digital skills and digital literacy with  a  focus on addressing digital divides and skill gaps, including gender skill gaps,  through  skilling,  reskilling,  upskilling  and  other  capacity  building initiatives.  In  this  regard, we  reaffirm  our  support  for  the efforts made  by the 2016 Chinese,  2017 German, 2018 Argentine and 2022 Indonesian G20 Presidencies. The 2023  Indian Presidency builds on the fourth pillar of the toolkit proposed by Indonesia,  i.e., ‘jobs’ in the digital economy.  

20. Supporting a gender equal workforce and the acquisition of digital skills ranging  from  basic  to  advanced  are  key  to  promoting  inclusive  and  sustainable  development.  Designing  and  promoting  inclusive  education,  training  programs  and other learning opportunities, particularly for underserved groups and people  in vulnerable situations, can contribute to reducing the digital skill gap. Therefore,  we recognise the importance of identifying the relevant skill sets and bridging the  information  gap  between  job  seekers,  employers,  education  and  training  institutions, and civil society actors.  

21. Given  that  digital  technologies  are  changing  the  skills  needed  for  any  job,  we  recognise the need to upskill and reskill the workforce with the relevant technical  and socio-emotional, or transversal skills. The digital era also calls for the need to  equip  the  workforce  with  skills  to  ensure  human  centric  and  privacy  friendly  design,  development, and  use  of  these  technologies. We  thus welcome  the G20  Toolkit  for  Designing  and  Introducing  Digital  Upskilling  and  Reskilling  Programs 2The document “G20 Toolkit for Designing and Introducing Digital Upskilling and Reskilling Programs” was produced by the IndianG20 Presidency and is based on the responses provided by the G20 members and guest countries to the Digital Skilling Questionnairecirculated by the Indian Presidency. Annexure 3A contains a brief summary of this toolkit (Annexure 3A) which outlines an indicative strategy for the design  and  implementation  of  digital  upskilling  and  reskilling  programs.  The  toolkit  further identifies a number of good practices related to the skilling, upskilling, and  reskilling and serves as a resource  to help better assess and improve strategies  towards building a future-ready workforce.  

22. We  acknowledge  that  many  G20  members  have  established  taxonomies  and  endowment frameworks based on skills, occupations, professional certifications,  or  job  roles.  However,  there  is  a  lack  of  a  widespread  measurement  of  skills,  abilities  and  competencies  enabling  cross-country  comparisons,  as  observed  during the G20 Argentine Presidency (2018). Therefore, we recognise that there  is a need for a common understanding of digital skills across borders to potentially  tap into a broader talent pool and help address the supply and demand gap of a  digitally skilled workforce. We thus, welcome the G20 Roadmap to Facilitate the  Cross-Country Comparison of Digital Skills (Annexure 3B). This roadmap is a  series of broad steps that seeks to enable a common understanding of job roles,  digital skills, and related credentials among G20 member states and beyond.  

23. Based  on  voluntary  engagements,  we  also  recognise  the  value  of  the  Indian  Presidency’s proposal to develop a virtual Centre of Excellence (CoE) which would  be built and maintained by UNESCO as a repository of good practices on digital  skilling  initiatives,  occupational  standards,  skill  taxonomies,  professional  certifications,  skill  credentials, and  studies  related  to  demand and  supply gaps,  especially related to digital skills and would aim to exchange relevant information  and encourage learning from interested countries’ approaches.  

D. Geopolitical Issues 

24. This year, we have also witnessed the war in Ukraine further adversely impact the  global economy. There was a discussion on the issue. We reiterated our national  positions as expressed in other fora, including the UN Security Council and the UN  General  Assembly,  which,  in  Resolution  No.  ES-11/1  dated  2  March  2022,  as  adopted  by majority  vote  (141  votes  for,  5  against,  35  abstentions,  12  absent)  deplores in the strongest terms the aggression by the Russian Federation against  Ukraine  and  demands  its  complete  and  unconditional  withdrawal  from  the  territory of Ukraine. Most members strongly condemned the war in Ukraine and  stressed  it  is  causing  immense  human  suffering  and  exacerbating  existing  fragilities  in  the  global  economy  – constraining  growth,  increasing  inflation,  disrupting supply chains, heightening energy and  food insecurity, and elevating  financial stability risks. There were other views and different assessments of the  situation  and  sanctions.  Recognising  that  the  G20  is  not  the  forum  to  resolve  security  issues,  we  acknowledge  that  security  issues  can  have  significant  consequences for the global economy.3 Russia rejected the inclusion of geopolitical Para 24, on the basis that it does not conform to the G20 mandate and recognizes the status of the Para 24 as Chair’s Summary. Russia agrees with the rest of the text. 4China stated that the G20 DEMM is not the right forum to discuss geopolitical issues and did not support the inclusion of thegeopolitical-related content.

25. It  is  essential  to  uphold  international  law  and  the  multilateral  system  that  safeguards  peace  and  stability.  This  includes  defending  all  the  Purposes  and  Principles  enshrined  in  the  Charter  of  the  United  Nations  and  adhering  to  international  humanitarian  law,  including  the  protection  of  civilians  and  infrastructure in armed conflicts. The use or threat of use of nuclear weapons is  inadmissible. The peaceful resolution of conflicts, efforts to address crises, as well  as diplomacy and dialogue, are vital. Today’s era must not be of war. 

Way forward 

26. We affirm that our deliberations and outcomes on Digital Public Infrastructure for  Digital Inclusion and Innovation; Building Safety, Security, Resilience and Trust in  the  Digital  Economy;  and  Digital  Skilling  for  Building  a  Global  Future-Ready  Workforce seek  to advance our collective efforts  to build an enabling, inclusive,  open, fair, non-discriminatory, and secure digital economy. In the context of digital  economy, we respect applicable legal frameworks. We also seek to foster a digital  economy  that  promotes  respect  for  human  rights,  privacy,  and  protection  of  personal data for all, and contributes to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda  for Sustainable Development and achievement of Sustainable Development Goals.  

27. We are grateful to all G20 members and guest countries for their contributions to  the G20 Digital Economy Working Group  (DEWG) under  the  Indian presidency.  We would also like to thank the international organisations and our knowledge  partners i.e.,  ITU, OECD, UNDP, UNESCO, and World Bank who contributed and  provided valuable feedback towards achieving the outcomes. 

28. Brazil,  as  the  next  Presidency  of  the  G20,  looks  forward  to  building  upon  the  achievements of past presidencies in order to continue to promote an inclusive,  sustainable,  development-oriented  and  human-centric  approach,  with  the  fundamental  aims  of  realising  the  full  potential  of  the  digital  economy  for  all,  improving people’s lives and bridging the digital divides. We therefore welcome  Brazil’s  plans  to  work  on  the  topics  of  universal  and  meaningful  connectivity;  artificial intelligence; information integrity and trust in the digital environment;  and digital government.  

29. We  believe  that  the  outcomes  of  this  Ministerial  meeting would  be  a  useful  resource  and  could  continue  to  contribute  actively  to  the  work  of  future  presidencies  and  work  collectively  to  realise  the  benefits  of  the  global  digital  economy. 



G20 Framework for systems of digital public infrastructure

1. Digital  public  infrastructure  represents  a  promising  approach  towards  digitalisation,  which  leverages  a  whole-of-society  approach  to  provide  benefits  across  sectors. Considering  the  diverse  approaches  of  G20  members  to  digital  transformation,  we  recognize  that  digital  public  infrastructure  is  an  evolving  concept that may not be limited to sets of digital systems with these characteristics  and  could  be  tailored  to  specific  country  contexts  and  can  be  referred  to  with  different  terminologies.  Under  the  Indian Presidency’s  initiative,  digital  public  infrastructure is described as a set of shared digital systems, the key idea behind  which is designing minimal digital building blocks that can be used modularly by  governments,  businesses,  academia,  and  civil  society  to  enable  society-wide  development.  The  ‘public’  in  digital  public  infrastructure  can  refer  to  public  benefit  and  access,  subject  to  appropriate  governance  and  oversight  by  public  authorities.  We  recommend  consideration  of  the  following  elements  in  the  development and deployment of these systems.  

a. Three components: technology, governance, and community. 

b. Suggested principles for (development and deployment). 

2. This voluntary and suggested  framework is developed as neutral reference that  recognizes that choice of technology and models will be determined by country  contexts.  


3. Technology: This  comprises  digital  systems  and  applications  (e.g.,  software  codes, protocols, standards) that are interoperable. These building blocks provide  a  stand-alone,  reusable  service  or  set  of  services. They  can  be  used  flexibly  for  different  use  cases  and  sectors.  These  can  be  open  source  and/or  proprietary  solutions, as well as a combination of both.  

4. Governance: Governance  is  critical  in  facilitating  user  adoption  at  scale  by  establishing  trust.  Governance  frameworks  may  include  rules  of  engagement  governing stakeholder behaviour, cross-cutting and domain specific norms, laws  and policies, and governance embedded into digital technologies (for e.g., privacy  enhancing  technologies).  It  provides  safeguards,  including  those  that  promote  respect for human rights and protection of personal data, privacy, and intellectual  property, as well as accessible and transparent grievance redressal mechanisms.  Governance  frameworks  may  also  include  accountable  institutions  for  maintaining oversight on its design, deployment, and implementation. It may also  seek  to  ensure  long-term  funding  to  ensure  sustained  and  uninterrupted  operations. 

5. Community: Vibrant  and  inclusive  community  participation  can  enable  value  creation.  This  also  comprises  private  sector  and  civil  society  actors  who  can  collaborate to unleash innovation and unlock value. 

6. SUGGESTED PRINCIPLES 5The aim of these Principles is to build upon the advancements in this domain, such as the Principles on Identification for Sustainable Development, the CPMI-IOSCO Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures, UN Principles for Responsible Digital Payments, and the Principles for Digital Development: TECHNOLOGY, GOVERNANCE AND COMMUNITY 

a. Inclusivity: Eliminate  or  reduce  economic,  technical,  or  social  barriers  to  enable  inclusion,  empowerment  of  end-users,  last-mile  access,  and  avoid  erroneous algorithmic bias. 

b. Interoperability: Enable  interoperability  by  using  and  building  on  open  standards and specifications with a  technology neutral approach, wherever  possible, while accounting for appropriate safeguards and keeping in view the  legal considerations and technical constraints.  

c. Modularity and Extensibility: Extensible approach implies a building block  or  modular  architecture  to accommodate  changes/modifications  without  undue disruption. 

d. Scalability: Use  flexible  design  to  easily  accommodate  any  unexpected  increase  in  demand  and  /  or  to  meet  expansion  requirements  without  changing existing systems. 

e. Security and Privacy: Adopt an approach that embeds key privacy enhancing  technologies and security features within the core design to ensure individual  privacy,  data  protection,  and  resilience  based  on  standards  offering  appropriate levels of protection.  

f. Collaboration: Encourage the participation of community actors at different  stages of planning, designing, building, and operating to facilitate and promote  a  culture  of  openness  and  collaboration.  Enable  the  development  of  user centric solutions and facilitate widespread and sustained adoption and allow  innovators to develop new services.  

g. Governance for Public Benefit, Trust, and Transparency: Maximise public  benefit, trust, and transparency while respecting applicable legal frameworks.  This  means  that  laws,  regulations,  policies,  and  capabilities  should  seek  to  ensure  that  these  systems  are  safe,  secure,  trusted  and  transparently  governed,  and  also  promote  competition,  and  inclusion,  and  adhere  to  principles of data protection and privacy. 

h. Grievance  redress: Define  accessible  and  transparent  mechanisms  for  grievance redress, i.e., user touchpoints, processes, responsible entities, with  a strong focus on actions for resolution. 

i. Sustainability:  Ensure  sustainability through  adequate  financing  and  technological  support  and  enhancements  to  facilitate  uninterrupted  operations and seamless user-focused service delivery. 

j. Human rights: Adopt an approach that respects human rights at every stage  of the planning, designing, building, and operating.  

k. Intellectual Property Protection: Provide adequate and effective protection  and  enforcement  of  intellectual  property  rights  for  the  rights-holders  of  technologies and other materials used based on existing legal frameworks. 

l. Sustainable Development: Seek  to develop and deploy  these systems  that  contribute  to  the  implementation  of  the  2030  Agenda  for  Sustainable  Development and achievement of Sustainable Development Goals. 


7. Leveraging digital technologies for economic activities often necessitates certain  basic  functions.  These  can  include  the  ability  to  identify  and  authenticate  individuals  and  businesses  and  secure  and  seamless  flow  of  money  and  information.  Digital  public  infrastructure  can  fulfil  these  core  functionalities  through interoperable digital systems, such as: digital ID, digital payment systems,  and data sharing mechanisms with consent wherever applicable in line with the  principles as described in Para 6 above. Some of these core functions are described  below: 

a. Identification: The ability for people and businesses to securely verify their  identity,  as  well  as  complementary  trust  services  such  as  electronic  signatures and verifiable credentials. 

b. Payments: Easy and instant transfer of money between people, businesses,  and governments. 

c. Data sharing with consent wherever applicable: Seamless flow of personal  data  with  consent,  wherever  applicable,  across  public  and  the  private  sectors, with safeguards for personal data protection as per applicable data  governance frameworks.  

8. Network effects of these systems can bring transformative changes in the digital  economy as well as help countries achieve their developmental goals.


A. G20 High-level principles to support business in building safety, security, resilience, and trust in the digital economy  

Recognising the importance of security in the digital economy and to support businesses,  we  endorse  the  following  non-binding  High-Level  Principles to  build  safety,  security,  resilience, and trust in the digital economy: 

1. Security and Trust 

We  seek  to  develop  a  human-centric  culture  of  security  and  trust  in  the  digital  economy that enables citizens and businesses to understand risk management by: 

a. Promoting  cyber  hygiene  and  the  development  of  market-led  and  industry-led  standards based on the principles of openness, transparency, and consensus. b. Encouraging businesses and supporting MSMEs to develop and implement good  practices  and  risk management  frameworks  to maintain  the integrity  of  global  supply chains. 

c. Promoting  a  ‘security  by  design’  and  phased  risk  management  approach  along  with encryption measures for digital solutions and services, including in emerging  technologies and connected systems and their devices. 

d. Promoting resilience in connected sectors such as health, finance, manufacturing,  and public services and utilities by taking suitable security measures. e. Encouraging  accessible  and  efficient  grievance  redressal  mechanisms  for  businesses,  MSMEs,  and  consumers  that  fall  victim  to  malicious  use  of  digital  technologies. 

2. Capacity Building 

We acknowledge that capacity building is an important aspect of advancing security  across the multilayered structure of the digital economy and should include: 

a. Collaborating with and encouraging relevant stakeholders, including international  organisations, to prioritise and contribute to capacity building within their areas  of expertise. 

b. Exploring  an  interdisciplinary  approach  that  includes  strategy,  governance,  technology,  regulatory  and  non-regulatory  frameworks,  culture,  economics,  incident response and crisis management. 

c. Providing guidance and awareness to citizens, businesses including MSMEs, and  the  wider  economy  on  how  to  stay  safe  and  secure  online  in  an  inclusive  and  accessible manner. 

d. Promoting lifelong learning opportunities for all users of digital technologies. e. Encouraging  young  people  especially  women  and  girls  to  consider  a  career  in  security  of  digital  solutions  and  services  through  curricular  or  extracurricular  programs. 

3. Research and Development 

We  recognise  the  importance  of  advancing  research  and  development  to  build resilience by: 

a. Promoting  research  in  advanced  and  emerging  technologies  that  can  enhance  protection against security threats. 

b. Sharing  best  practices  on  how  to  tackle  various  security  threats,  including  recommendations from international organisations. 

c. Facilitating  research  projects  on  topics  such  as  the  economic  costs  of  security  incidents and their impact on businesses and underrepresented communities. d. Promoting studies  to measure security-related digital divides and its impact on  economies. 

4. Multistakeholder Cooperation 

We recognise  that partnering with businesses, civil society organisations, academia,  international organisations and the technical community is key to promoting security  in the digital economy and can be reinforced by: 

a. Developing  opportunities  for  public  private  partnership  collaboration  and  engagement. 

b. Supporting the sharing of trends on known and existing vulnerabilities faced by  nongovernmental stakeholders in the digital environment. 

c. Facilitating engagement between businesses and points of contacts across various  industry incident response teams. 

5. Strengthening Resilience of Essential Services 

We recognise the importance of preventing damage or disruptions to certain essential  social and economic services in the digital economy and encourage stakeholders to: 

a. Take suitable measures to protect services essential to the digital economy from  security threats. 

b. Encourage businesses to set up mechanisms to assess the security of their supply  chains for essential services in an evidence-based approach. 

6. Support for MSMEs in the Security Ecosystem 

We recognise the role of MSMEs in the digital economy and support strengthening the  MSME security ecosystem by: 

a. Driving innovation by supporting MSMEs that offer security solutions and services  to scale-up and grow. 

b. Providing guidance and support to MSMEs on how to operate securely in a digital  environment. 

c. Creating  opportunities  for  MSMEs  to  engage  with  governments,  shape  policy  approaches and share good practices to improve resilience to combat particular  security challenges. 

d. Seeking  to mobilise additional  cooperation,  funding, and  support  for MSMEs  to  improve their security capacity.

B. Toolkit on cyber education and cyber awareness of children and youth 

7. The close integration of digital technologies in the lives of children and youth has  translated  into  various  benefits,  such  as  access  to  information,  increased  connectivity to online spaces, and the opportunity to learn a wide array of skill sets.  However, as  per  the  United  Nations  International  Children’s  Emergency  Fund  (UNICEF) the surge in online activity has also led to a proliferation of cyber risks  specifically targeting children and youth.  

8. International organisations such as the ITU have recognized the significance of this  challenge  and  framed  guidelines  such  as  the  ITU’s  Guidelines  on  Child  Online  Protection,  Guidelines  for  policymakers.  The  G20  members  have  explicitly  acknowledged this challenge and opportunity. In 2021, the G20 Digital Economy  Ministers  committed  to  the  non-binding  G20 High  Level  Principles  for  Children  Protection and Empowerment in the Digital Environment, which this toolkit builds  upon

9. The toolkit relied on three phases of research: 

a. Phase  1:  Empirical  desk-based  research  that reviewed  a  range  of  publicly  available  sources  on  G20  countries  to  map  information  relating  to  the  core  research questions.  

b. Phase 2: Consultation with G20 members and obtaining direct insights through  a questionnaire circulated in February 2023. 

c. Phase 3: Consolidation of data from mapping and consultation. 

10. To  mitigate  these  risks,  G20  members  and  guest  countries  have  adopted  and  implemented a broad range of measures. These include comprehensive regulations  and  capacity-building measures,  such as the  creation  of  dedicated websites and  applications.  This  toolkit  has  recorded  some  of  these  measures.  We  found  that  measures to further child online safety are based on a combined assessment of the  following factors: 

a. The type of risk 

b. Targeted actor 

c. Implementing stakeholder  

d. Desired outcome 

11. This toolkit depicts this approach in a pyramidal model but acknowledges that the  adopted  measures  may  vary  from  this  approach  as  per  the  social,  economic,  political and cultural contexts of a member. 

12. Drawing  from desk research and responses  to a survey circulated by  the  Indian  Presidency among all the G20 members and guest countries, the toolkit shares five  takeaways that policymakers may consider while developing cyber education and  cyber awareness initiatives for children and youth. These include:

a. Classifying risks and responses based on sub age groups. 

b. Investing in response, referrals, and support systems. 

c. Adopting  and  investing  in  a  multi-stakeholder  approach  throughout  the  decision-making process. 

d. Promoting global cooperation to further child online safety. e. Recognising the critical role of businesses and online platforms.


A. G20 Toolkit for designing and introducing digital upskilling and reskilling programs 

1. Digital transformation and new technological developments are changing the way we  live,  work,  and  behave,  deeply  transforming  economies  and  societies  worldwide.  Projections point to important shifts in the workforce due to use of automation and  artificial intelligence technologies, both in terms of possible job losses and change in  job  profiles  and  job  tasks.  Digital  skill  gaps,  including  among  women  and  girls,  emerge as the key factor hampering technological development and adoption.  

2. Formulation of comprehensive digital skill development strategies can contribute to  inclusive digital economies. We  further recognise  the need  for basic and advanced  digital  skills,  and  associated  socio-emotional  or  transversal 6According to UNESCO, transversal skills are those typically considered as not specifically related to a particular job, task, academic discipline or area of knowledge but as skills that can be used in a wide variety of situations and work settings (IBE 2013). These skills are increasingly in high demand for learners to successfully adapt to changes and to lead meaningful and productive lives. Examples include- Critical and innovative thinking, Interpersonal skills, Intrapersonal skills, Global Citizenship, Media Literacy skills,  in  addition  to  skills  related  to  the  responsible  design,  development,  and  deployment  of  digital  technologies, for a future ready, gender equal, inclusive workforce.  

3. Addressing  this  need,  we  have  developed  the  G20  Toolkit  for  Designing  and  Introducing Digital Upskilling and Reskilling Programs to help  the design and  implementation of digital upskilling and reskilling programmes at scale. This toolkit  builds on the fourth pillar of the toolkit proposed by the Indonesian G20 Presidency  in 2022, i.e., ‘jobs’ in the digital economy. 

4. The  G20  Toolkit  for  Designing  and  Introducing  Digital  Upskilling  and  Reskilling  Programs  serves  as  a  compendium  of  good  practices,  enabling  factors,  implementation  challenges,  and  case  studies  of  successfully  implemented  digital  skilling programmes across G20 members and other countries. The  toolkit  further  delineates  an  indicative  and  flexible  strategy  which  can  be  referenced  when  developing and deploying digital skilling programmes. 

5. The structure of the G20 Toolkit for Designing and Introducing Digital Upskilling  and Reskilling Programs is as follows: 

a. Compendium of Digital Skilling Initiatives 

The  compendium  reflects  the  responses  received  to  the  questionnaire  circulated  among G20 members and guest countries. It consolidates information provided by  G20  members  and  guest  countries  on  aspects  including  skill  qualification  frameworks, occupational standards, as well as programmes, strategies, and schemes  for digital skilling. It highlights examples of stakeholders’ collaboration, mechanisms  for credentials and certifications, enabling factors and challenges faced by members  in their initiatives, and shares key lessons learnt. The case studies presented in this  section reflect successful actions or initiatives deployed by G20 members and guest  countries.  

b. Indicative  Strategy  for  Designing  and  Introducing  Digital  Skilling,  Upskilling and Reskilling Programmes  

The compendium is complemented by an indicative strategy for the introduction of  digital upskilling and reskilling programs. The strategy draws from the initiatives and  experiences of G20 members and guest countries and may be followed or built upon  flexibly  by  the  governments  of  G20 members  and  beyond.  The  proposed  strategy  entails: 

i. Identifying  key  relevant  emerging  technologies  to  build  a  future-ready,  gender equal workforce. 

ii. Classifying job tasks and mapping them to required digital skill sets and job  tasks  to  assess  upskilling  and  reskilling  needs  for  current  and  future  workforce.  

iii. Assessing gaps in existing digital skilling programmes  to improve design  and implementation.  

iv. Leveraging short-term training in addition to school and higher education  curricula, to keep pace with technological developments and market needs.  

v. Investing in trainers and faculty to improve their training capacity in digital  skills and enable the use of innovative digital technologies in pedagogy. 

vi. Developing  and  promoting  an  ecosystem  of  digital  credentials  for  easier  verifiability, accessibility, and comparability.  

B. Roadmap to facilitate cross country comparison of digital skills

6. To  address  the need  for  a  widespread  measurement  of  skills,  abilities  and  competencies  enabling  cross-country  comparison  already  highlighted  by  the  Argentine  Presidency  in  2018,  the  ‘Roadmap  to  Facilitate  Cross  Country  Comparison  of  Digital  Skills’  encourages  countries  to  identify,  define,  and  compare  digital  skills  and  competencies  across  borders,  while  also  promoting  workforce  development in  the  digital economy.  It  seeks  to establish a  common  understanding between taxonomies related to the skills needed for the digital era,  with  the  aim  to  contribute  to  greater  employment,  innovation,  and  economic  development.  

7. The ‘Roadmap to Facilitate the Cross-Country Comparison of Digital Skills’ builds  on existing  skills  recognition  frameworks. Given  the  diversity  of approaches  to  recognising  skills in  different  countries,  the  roadmap  has  been  envisioned  as  a  series of broad steps, for countries to flexibly adapt the roadmap to their specific  contexts. The roadmap can  facilitate the engagement of countries in bilateral or multilateral dialogues to help create a common understanding of the digital skills  needed in different job roles, in addition to tasks, qualifications, and credentials or  professional certifications. 

8. By facilitating collaboration, the roadmap can help devise a coordinated approach  to  respond  to  digital  skill  demands  by  different  industries.  It  seeks  to  help  countries  identify  emerging  digital  skills  and  needs,  prioritise  investments  in  relevant  areas,  and  inform  upskilling  and  reskilling  policies  undertaken  by  governments and industry. 

Key Considerations for Cross-country Comparison 

9. While  countries  may  have  different  approaches  when  it  comes  to  recognising digital  skills,  common  elements  emerge.  These  relate  to  accessibility  of  information,  comparability,  evidence,  and  verifiability,  which  all  represent  elements enabling more effective comparisons of digital skills across borders.  

10. Access to comprehensive information about the digital skilling syllabus, content,  learning and proficiency can enable better understanding of individuals’ digital  skills, knowledge, and experience, enabling effective comparison.  

11. Comparability enables the assessment and comparison of digital skill credentials,  qualifications, experience, and proficiency across countries, ensuring that digital  skills can be evaluated and acknowledged consistently.  

12. Evidence in the form of documented proof of digital skill credentials is essential  for comparison of digital skills. This may include professional certifications, or any  other credentials that provide tangible evidence of an individual’s digital skills.  

13. Verifiability establishes the legitimacy of digital skill credentials and enables trust  among stakeholders.  

14. It is important to note that these considerations are not exhaustive, and countries  may use any, or all of these, as a basis for cross country comparison.  

Key Components of the Roadmap  

15. The roadmap comprises the following components:  

a. Identification  and  classification  of  knowledge,  skills,  and  competencies  in  the  digital  era: In  order  to  effectively  perform  a  particular job, or task, it is important to identify the knowledge, skills, and competencies  required  for  the  digital  era.  These  encompass  digital,  technical,  and  socio-emotional  /  transversal  skills  to  enable  responsible  design, development, and use of technologies.7 In line with UNESCO Recommendation on the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence (UNESCO, 2021 

b. Measurement and assessment of proficiency: The knowledge, skills and  competencies  identified  need  to  be  assessed  in  terms  of  the  level  of  proficiency  required.  The  criteria  related  to  such  assessment  may  be  shared, to facilitate comparison, benchmarking, and good practices. 

c. Establishing  suitable  similarities: 8‘Similarities’ refers to any metric (s) that a country may choose to use while comparing digital skills, competencies, credentials in another country. Participating  countries  may  collectively identify similarities in relation to skills, especially digital skills,  qualifications, job  roles and  tasks, as well as  required proficiency levels,  and credentials.  

d. This process would enable assessment and comparison of digital skills across  educational  or  professional  systems  to  inform  the  design  and  implementation  of  upskilling and  reskilling  programmes and  policies, in  support of industry and employment outcomes.