2023 BIS survey on central bank digital currencies


Author: Bank for International Settlements

Survey reveals that 94% of central banks are actively exploring Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs), with each institution progressing at its own pace and considering various design features.
In 2023, there has been a significant increase in experiments and pilots related to wholesale CBDCs, particularly in advanced economies, though emerging markets and developing economies have also ramped up their efforts. The likelihood of central banks issuing a wholesale CBDC in the next six years now surpasses that of issuing retail CBDCs.

Key features under consideration include interoperability and programmability for wholesale CBDCs, and holding limits, interoperability, offline options, and zero remuneration for retail CBDCs.