The UK’s Information Commissioner’s Office fined Facebook with its maximum sanction (€565,000) for its part in the Cambridge Analytica scandal. Euractiv reports that this decision was publicly welcomed by EU officials, such as Justice Commissioner Vĕra Jourová. The UK watchdog indicated that Facebook processed users’ data unfairly by allowing applications to access them without clear consent between 2007 and 2014. Though the GDPR provides for greater sanctions, this regulation only entered in to force in 2018, and was thus not applicable.
Privacy and data protection are two interrelated Internet governance issues. Data protection is a legal mechanism that ensures privacy. Privacy is usually defined as the right of any citizen to control their own personal information and to decide about it (to disclose information or not). Privacy is a fundamental human right. It is recognised in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and in many other international and regional human rights conventions. The July 2015 appointment of the first UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy in the Digital Age reflects the rising importance of privacy in global digital policy, and the recognition of the need to address privacy rights issues the the global, as well as national levels.
Cybercrime is crime committed via the Internet and computer systems. One category of cybercrimes are those affecting the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and computer systems; they include: unauthorised access to computer systems, illegal interception of data transmissions, data interference (damaging, deletion, deterioration, alteration of suppression of data), system interf