World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) started a Web Payments Working Group Charter. They will work on an overall Web payments architecture. Working Group will standardize a set of messages and a message flow for the initiation, confirmation, and completion of a payment. It will help in standardisation of cryptocurrencies, alongside other online payment means such as Google Wallet, Apple Pay, PayPal.
Web standards are a set of formal standards and technical specifications for the world wide web. They ensure that content is accessible across devices and configurations, and therefore provide the core rules for developing websites.
The main content and applications standards include: HyperText Markup Language (HTML), a plain text language which makes use of tags to define the structure of the document; eXtensible Markup Language (XML), another type of language used for sharing structured information; Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) a language used in conjunction with HTML to control the presentation of web pages; and eXtensible HTML (XHTML), an extended version of HTML which uses stricter rules.
By the late 1980s, the battle of network standards was over. TCP/IP gradually became the main network protocol, marginalising other standards. While the Internet facilitated normal communication between a variety of networks via TCP/IP (see Technical Standards), the system still lacked common applications standards.
A solution was developed by Tim Berners-Lee and his colleagues at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Geneva, consisting of a new standard for sharing information over the Internet, called HTML. Content displayed on the Internet first had to be organised according to HTML standards. HTML, as the basis of the World Wide Web, paved the way for the Internet’s exponential growth.
Since its first version, HTML has been constantly upgraded with new features. The growing relevance of the Internet has put the question of the standardisation of HTML into focus. This was particularly relevant during the Browser Wars between Netscape and Microsoft, when each company tried to strengthen its market position by influencing HTML standards. While basic HTML only handled text and photos, newer Internet applications required more sophisticated technologies for managing databases, video, and animation. Such a variety of applications required considerable standardisation efforts in order to ensure that Internet content could be properly viewed by the majority of Internet browsers.
Application standardisation entered a new phase with the emergence of XML, which provided greater flexibility in the setting of standards for Internet content. New sets of XML standards were also been introduced, such as the standard for the distribution of wireless content called Wireless Markup Language (WML).
The main web standard-setting institution is the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), headed by Tim Berners-Lee. Standards are developed through an elaborate process which aims to promote consensus, fairness, public accountability, and quality. At the end of the process, standards are published in the form of Recommendations.
When it comes to an open approach to standards development, W3C – in addition to other bodies such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), and the Internet Society – subscribes to the Open Stand initiative, an affirmation of principles that encourages the development of open and global market-driven standards.
W3C standards define an open platform for the development of applications, which enables developers to build rich interactive experiences. W3C states that ‘although the boundaries of the platform continue to evolve, industry leaders speak nearly in unison about how HTML5 will be the cornerstone for this platform.’
It is interesting to note that in spite of its high relevance to the Internet, so far, the W3C has not attracted much attention in the debate on Internet governance.
Other institutions involved in standards include the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA), an association of companies whose main role is to develop Standards and Technical Reports.
As with technical standards, the possible gap in the development of web standards is related to the coverage of non-technical aspects (e.g. human rights, competition policy, and security). Web standards have an even stronger impact on these non-technical aspects since, more so than technical standards, they shape the ways in which the Internet is accessed and used.
The latest edition of glossary, compiled by DiploFoundation, contains explanations of over 130 acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations used in IG parlance. In addition to the complete term, most entries include a concise explanation and a link for further information.
The book, now in its sixth edition, provides a comprehensive overview of the main issues and actors in the field of Internet governance and digital policy through a practical framework for analysis, discussion, and resolution of significant issues. It has been translated into many languages.
The paper presents the results of an analysis of ten web standards with respect to two generic security goals: new web mechanisms should not break the security of existing web applications, and different newly proposed mechanisms should interact with each other gracefully.
The paper gives an overview of version 2.0 of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), released by the WAP Forum (which later became the Open Mobile Alliance). WAP 2.0 provides support for protocols such as IP, TCP and HTTP, offering an environment that permits wireless devices to utilize existing Internet technologies.
The paper's authors, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, described an internetworking protocol for sharing resources using packet-switching among the nodes.